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Baranganic Phase

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by

Naomi Villaflor

on 19 August 2014

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Transcript of Baranganic Phase

POLITICAL LEADERSHIP
Economic Organization
The Social Classes
Kinship And Family
Cultural Developments
Baranganic Phase
The Barangay
from the word "Balangay"
Complex social organizations + custom laws
+ conventional practices
Social Stratification = specialists
= specialization = economic growth
Could it be
considered
as a state?
TERRITORY
Independent
Territorial rights
People
2000 - 20,000 depending on the geographical location
Coastal > Inland
goes beyond kinship
Government
Datu
Council
of
Elders
Seat of governance
Legitimacy of group decision
Sovereignty
independent of each other
Alliances
Common Heritage
founding families
DATU
Generally comes from affluent and rich families
Every datu have his own freedom on how he would lead his barangay
Hereditary
through courage and skills in war,
accumulation of material wealth,
marriage, and
strong personal charisma
"Datuship"
Duties
- Protect the village from outside enemies
- Maintain peace and order
- Lead warriors in battle
- Administer the needs of the people
- Settle family feuds and other personal disputes

Privileges
- People gave him a share of their crops
- People helped prepare, plant,
and harvest his crops
- Assist him in hunting and fishing activities
- Join him in religious festivities
- People fought with him when outsiders
raided the community

ALLIANCES
14th Century - Barangays and trading centers
No sovereign datu
Must assist each other
temporary
Forged through:
Blood compact or "Sanduguan"
Marriages between two datu families
Non-barangay members
must give the datu some privileges
before being permitted from using
the fishing grounds and
the barangay market.
Titles used during
the baranganic phase
Pangulo
Title given to
a datu who had influence
to the other datu/s
in an alliance
Pinuno
Title given to
people who helped
to found the barangay
Rajah
Title given to datus
who had contacts
with Muslim traders
Examples: Rajah Matanda and Rajah Soliman
Agorang
Council of elders
who helps the Datu in his duties
Sakop
Staff of loyal followers
Atubang sa datu
The head/representative of Sakop
which is the one who faces
and talks to the datu
Battasan
Sets of custom laws which serves as
the basis for local decision making,
social control, and social justice
Land Use
Kaingin (slash and burn) – the basic agricultural pattern in the barangays.
Residential implications of this type of agriculture
It greatly influence the mobility of farmers.
Because of population dispersal, the development of large and unified inter-barangay groupings did not take place. But any timawa can transfer from one barangay to another without much hindrance from the home barangay
Because of the lack of despotic ruler, a big, stone-walled community did not develop.

Water Use
Trading
Transportation
Traveling
Acquiring protein rich foods

Trading
The core of economic activities in big coastal barangays was trading, domestic or foreign
Big factor in agricultural and social growth
The main reason for connecting with other people
External trade and improved agriculture brought about changes in the economic life of the people

Datu Class


The elite group
The class where leaders often come from.
Responsible for the welfare of the community
Maharlika Class

Composed of wealth people with privileges such as not paying taxes and tributes
Assist the datu in time of war
Warriors (bagani) belong to this class

Timawa Class
Commoners
bulk of the population
Serves the Datu and Maharlika classes

Alipin / Uripon Class
Least privileged
“slaves”

Namamahay
they owned and lived in their own houses
come to assist their master

Saguiguilid
Did not own anything
Captives during war
No social privileges
They can be sold

Open Class System” which means there was mobility between classes
If an individual commits a crime and was unable to pay the fine, he was made a “slave”.

Interclass Relations
Timawa and alipin have limited privileges and had little to do with decision making.
Chiefs will never marry any but a woman of rank.
The stratifications give us caste-like situation in which there were class-defined practices.
Alipin could attain freedom was by purchased.

Basic organizing principles underlying community life and social activities of Filipino society
Characterized by “simplicity” and “adaptability”
The range or size of the bilaterally extended kin group was the importance to Ancient Filipino for it gave community life its strength and security.
Ritual kinship established by blood is called “sandugo”.
Family is the core unit of prehistoric kinship system and the center of authority and decision making.

LIFE
CYCLE
Pregnancy and Birth

Women who wish to become pregnant raised pigs
There is active participation of supernatural beings in human activities
Husbands should not cut their hair until their wives deliver
Pregnant women were prohibited from eating any food that are two-in-one
They are also warned against “eating from two upwards from a plate”
Abortion was universally practiced by ancient Filipinos
They believed in certain taboos and perform certain rites

Boxer Codex of 1590
Child Rearing

Named after certain circumstances attendant to birth
Based on physical features
After their long departed great-grandparents

Giving of name
While the child grows up
The newly born sleeps beside the mother and taken care of siblings
When old enough, they are taught how to do household chores
Daughters are taught the female roles in the house and community
Sons are trained to farm and fish as well as the skills of warfare
When a girl reaches puberty she undergoes a rite of passage

Marriage
Predominantly monogamous but polygamy was practiced in some places
Child marriages were frequent
Contracted before the children were born
The agreement will be passed on to the succeeding births in case the same sexes were born
The groom works in the family of the prospective bride
There is a dowry which worth is dependent on social status
Conjugal property was equally divided between the couple should they agree to divorce

Death & Burial
Mourning was observed
Feasting and drinking before burial (except widow of deceased)
According to Social Status or rank

High Ranks:
Sponged with concoction from boiled and pounded leaves
Wrapped in bondage and embalmed
Rested in a coffin placed in:
Upper part of the house with jewels
Lower part of the house raised from the ground
Open hole surrounded with high railing
Box of valuable tools and food placed with the dead
Death is announced by criers

For Chiefs
Four days of mourning before burial
Cause of death is murder = buried until avenged by kinsmen
Cause of death is minor = boar/deer stabbed with lances
“A life for a life”, to honor that the dead has been avenged
Mourners
a) Cut their hair short
b) Wear rattan foot and hand strings
Valuables and captured slaves were buried with the dead

For the poor
Buried in grave dug under the house
For Tagalogs
Slaves were tied and buried with their dead warrior

Inheritance
For Bisayans
Equal division among sons and daughters
Son from a slave = receive what will be given by “true” sons
Brothers and cousins receive property if there are no children (by closest relation)
Adopted children receive double of what has been paid for adoption

Religion
Spirit Worship
Bathala – “The superior one”
Anitos – represented by idols / likhas
Placed in all important parts of the house
Anointed with perfume and dressed
Praised in poetic songs
Augeries – “pamahiin”
Religious Functionaries
Divination
Food Offerings
Sacrifices – animals or fowls

Reasons for sacrifices
a. recovery from sickness
b. safe voyage
c. good harvest
d. triumph in wars
e. successful child birth
f. happy marriage
Full transcript