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Transcript of AGRICULTURAL REGIONS
BY: IOANA JURAVLEA, JULIA KURON, JULIA RECINTO, ALEXANDRA TUSER
Intensive Subsistence: Wet Rice Dominant
Intensive Subsistence: Wet Rice Not Dominant
Mixed Crop and Livestock
Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming
Effects on the landscape:
Ranching agriculture is performed by cowboys and ranchers, which means that it is human powered and that it is not mechanized. These animals, mainly consist of cattle and sheep, graze grass fields in dry, temperate areas (the Pampas-located in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil-are one of the biggest places where ranching occurs) and cowboys herd the animals on horseback and with the help of working animals. in the picture above you can see cowboys on horseback gathering the cattle into a confined space. After the animals are herded they are transported to large slaughter houses. The ranching style is a traditional style of agriculture and does not involve the use of big machinery or advanced technology. Ranching is not a chemical style of agriculture, it is a manure style of agriculture. Ranching is also an extensive farming method because it is used primarily for profit and it is done on less expensive land.
Crops Produced/ Consumption:
Ranching style of agriculture produces animals and materials from animals rather than seed or plant crops. The most common types of animals found in ranching are cattle and sheep, but animals such as bison, elk, ostriches, emus, and alpacas can also be found in this type of agriculture. Animals provide us with a variety of things including meat, dairy, and raw materials. The meat from the animals is used for human consumption as well as animal consumption. Dairy provided from the animals is also used for human consumption. The animals skin or fur can be used as leather or wool for things like clothing and furniture. In the picture above the cattle that the cowboys are herding is considered the "crop" of ranching.
Effects on Landscape:
Effects on Landscape:
Effects on Landscape:
Ranching has brought up many troublesome effects on the Earth's landscape and environment.In some parts of the world ranching has led to deforestation and ranching has expanded into areas where it should not exist. In South America in the Amazon ranching has tore down miles and miles, almost 80%, of Amazonian Rainforest and made that area into grazing land. By destroying the rainforest ranchers are also destroying many animals' habitats and they are destroying the soil as well. Ranching also affects the sustainability of the land that is being used for ranching purposes. For example in the Great Plains(America and Canada), the soil is starting to erode because of overgrazing, meaning that the animals eat too much grass and there is too much animals that graze the fields. Soil erosion can lead to poor plant growth. The 1930s Dust Bowl was primarily caused by ranching because the soil eroded and the crops wouldn't grow. . Ranching is also a major contributor to global warming and pollution in our atmosphere. When ranchers clear forests to make room for grazing land the carbon emissions are very high which is one of the ways that greenhouse gases are produced.
In intensive subsistence: wet rice dominant farming is performed in steps. First farmers grow rice seedlings in a relatively dry landscape then transport it to flooded fields. To prepare the wet/flooded fields farmers use the help of oxen or water buffalo. The animals plow the land with some type of plow attached around their necks (using a rope) and then drag the plow (some type of log/pole with a weight at its end) across the land. Afterward, farmers play the waiting game for their field to turn into a paddy (flooded field with rice). To do so they need to flood their plowed fields and make sure they're leveled. This flooding can occur either through rainfall, irrigation, or the flooding of a river (brings river wildlife with it). Typically, the rice seedlings can only be delivered to the paddy in about a month or two (20-55 days) into its creation. Once that time passes over the rice plants are left to grow underwater for over half of their growing process. Then, when the rice is ready, it is picked individually, or in some areas, combines are used as a quicker alternative. In some cases a method called double cropping (getting two harvests from one field) will be used for more harvest more produce.
Asian farmers individually pick rice plants set up in paddies. They gather and collect the rice plants in rows at a time and are dressed this way due to the harsh humidity of the paddies. Far in the distance several more rows of the rice paddies can be seen. This picture shows the large amount of work and cooperation of farmers needed to produce and collect wet rice.
The only crops produced in intensive subsistence: wet rice dominant farming is rice/dry grain. First the dry grain/rice seedlings are produced to be placed into a paddy, or sawah (another name for paddy). Even though there is not much crop variety, the rice plants do vary in sizes: short to medium (duration of up to 120 days), medium to long (duration of up to 120-130 days), and long (duration of 130-160 days). The rice plants, in most farming cases likely to be sprayed with pesticides during their nursery (creation of seedlings) which may be a factor in their growth. Many Asian farmers produce this crop to feed their families. After the rice crops are produced and picked (most likely on a sunny day) they go through a bleaching process to make them more white, and more appealing to the consumer. Due to the bleaching process, some of the nutrients in the crop are removed. Regardless, bleaching the rice gives the crop not just a better look, but also, a better taste.
Effects on Landscape:
The effect that intensive subsistence: wet rice farming has on the landscape of South, East, and Southeast Asia is almost the same. They all have flat, leveled land in order to have the leveled flooding for the seedlings (since the seedlings need to be put underwater-submerged). Without proper leveling the water couldn't be managed as well, and the seedlings wouldn't mature as preferably. Hillsides are made to be flat and going up or down in the structure of a staircase. This makes the crops more easily accessible for farmers to tend to. The different terracing fields are necessary for the rice crops because they grow at different paces depending on their altitudes. Usually the mid-altitude produces a more mature yield than lowland. This type of farming is good the landscape because it's utilizing the overflow of water (which could otherwise damage the soil if not tamed) and is using the landscape efficiently.
Effects on Landscape:
This paddy in East Asia is stretching far across the land, utilizing the hills, which could have been to no use, into a place for crop growing. They are each leveled in water amounts, and move downwards in a staircase like form. They are also exposed to sunlight and noticeably not covered by trees. This is because the rice crops are only picked in sunlight, and need warm climate to mature.
1. "Package of Practice." Directorate of Agriculture. Meghalaya State Centre, n.d. Web. This website gave me information about wet rice dominant farming and varieties of crops grown. It also provided methods and techniques to creating a paddy/sawah and pictures of farmers working in them. Pictures also included wet rice plants. This source also gave me information on altitudes for rice plant growing and how the landscape effects the crop growth and vise versa. Charts were also provided more further information rice sizes, locations, yields, and maturity.
2. "Intensive Subsistence WITH Wet Rice." Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. This website provided me with the steps of creating paddy fields and the process of bleaching rice. It also gave insight on areas of intensive subsistence wet rice dominant farming areas (southeast, south, and east Asia). Pictures of the landscape were provided to show how it looked after this farming method. A video named Rice Growing on the website also gave more insight at how rice looks before bleaching and after. The farmers are also seen using their methods of harvesting the crop and setting up their fields to prevent pests, and lessen weeds for better growth of their product.
These pictures depict cowboys on horseback herding their "crop". The picture on the left shows cowboys bringing their cattle into a tight space and the background also shows the climate in which ranching occurs, which is dry and temperate. The picture on the right also displays a cowboy on a horse herding his cattle.
Effects on Landscape:
Pastoral Nomadism is based on and receives its profits from herding animals. It is present in lands where soil is not fertile enough to produce crops. Since Pastoral Nomadism is used mainly in arid or semiarid areas, camels are well suited for herding. A typical herd includes 25-60 goats/sheep, or 10-25 camels. Animals that can survive in these climates are important also that don't need that much care. Therefore, a herder can care for more at once.
Pastoral Nomadism mainly takes place in dry and arid climates, also called B-type climates. Since it takes place in such areas, planting crops is almost impossible, which is why it is so prominent. Some of the places where Pastoral Nomadism takes place is Central and Southwest Asia, and North Africa. The type of land also affects the animals being herded, and the animals can then affect the land. The migration routes evolve from the land.
In shifting cultivation, also known as Swidden agriculture, the "slash-and-burn" method is used to plant crops in new parts of land, provide fertile land where crops are planted, as well as promote diversity in the wildlife of the forests. This method has produced some controversy, with many saying that it is a form of deforestation. Farmers burn forests and cut down remaining greenery to make room for new crops that benefit the farmer. After three years, they let that part of land rest for regrowth and become fertile once more. This minimizes the exhaustion of soil for their plants. The resting time after the farmers have used up all the nutrients of that land may take up to twenty years, and in the meantime, they move on to a new parcel of land, using the "slash-and-burn" method there as well. This empty plot of land is called a Swidden, which is where its name originates from. In LDC's, this is a traditional method that uses fire, and is more about surviving, rather than growing an economy.
In intensive subsistence: wet rice not dominant farming practically the same methods of farming are used as in intensive subsistence: wet rice dominant farming. Animals are used as tools to pull a plow across the soil. The difference between wet rice dominant, and wet rice not dominant regions is that wet rice not dominant is farmed in areas of Asia that are more mild, drier and not suitable for growing wet rice dominant plants. These areas seem to have a differing weather with lower temperatures and harsher winters, as opposed to warm winters in wet rice dominant regions in Asia. The not dominant wet rice farming is an older method of farming. Besides the rice crops, other crops are grown with this method on the more inward areas of India, and parts of East Asia. A lot of human effort and work is used on these crop fields. Crop rotation is a method used as well where farmers rotate the crops used in the fields each year to keep the quality of their soil at its best. Machines are most commonly used to harvest crops.
A man uses the help of animals, in this case two horses (one calf and one adult) to plow his land and soil in order to plant his seeds after for whichever crop will be grown in the fields that year (because of crop rotation).The animals are also visibly exhausted/weak possibly after plowing the fields all day with no water source nearby to refill at. It is visibly an arid area, good for this type of farming. Fields beyond him show the amount of human involvement in changing the landscape and manipulating it for farming crash crops and grains.
In intensive subsistence: wet rice not dominant crops grown are much more extensive than wet rice dominant crops. This is because of the use of crop rotation. Wheat is the most popular/important crop grown due to its variety of uses in foods and products (such as breads and pastas). Wheat has high commercial value making it number one, but coming in second is barley which can only be grown around spring time, when the weather's warmer. Cash crops (crops sold to gain high profit) that are grown include: flax, hemp, tobacco, and most importantly, cotton. Grains grown for consumption include: corn (a very popular household consumption grain), millet, soybeans (a product used in practically every processed food), sorghum (more commonly used in Africa/Asia), oats, and kaoliang (more commonly used in China/Asia). Grains are very easily grown in areas with this type of climate.
1. "Shifting Cultivation." Shifting Cultivation. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
This website provided the definition of what shifting cultivation is, expanded more on the meaning of swidden agriculture, and revealed examples in which the creation of diversity in shifting cultivation was shown.
2. "Agriculture." Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
This website furthermore explained what shifting cultivation is. It explained which crops were produced, the climate type, and benefits/drawbacks of shifting cultivation. It also provided a Youtube video which I used an example for the farming methods slide.
3. "Slash and Burn Agriculture." EcoLogic Development Fund. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
This website explains how the "slash-and-burn" method is done, and presented its benefits. It also showed the downsides of this method and includes pictures, as well as explaining some effects on the landscape and better methods of agricullture.
4. Slash and burn landscape. Digital image. Shuttershock. N.p., n.d. Web.
5. Sierra Leone. Digital image. <i>Sierra Leone</i>. N.p., n.d. Web.
A farmer is weeding a maize field in India. Maize, or corn is an important grain grown in wet rice not dominant farming. Though many regions preferably use machines to collect their crops, this woman hand picks them and collects them in her basket. This picture shows that in this field corn/maize was the crop used that year. The field is growing the same crop (maize) to keep the soil more fertile. This crop is not as huge of a seller as wheat but will be used often by consumers in households. This picture also shows lack of water around the fields proving its wet rice not dominant.
Because of the "slash-and-burn" method, the land that is used for shifting cultivation is quite uneven, and diversity in the crops produced becomes very common. Many different types of crops are grown, depending on the environment and available resources around the village where the planters farm nearby. The crops that are produced could range from vegetables to medicine for the healing of the villagers living nearby. Some regions in SE Asia use this method, producing rice. In South America, maize (corn) and manioc (cassava) are predominant, and sorghum is a popular crop in Africa. Possible crops also include yams, sugarcane and plantain. They may also obtain a great deal of lumber from the trees in the forest that they "slash" down, which can be used for firewood, buildings, and everyday materials.
Effects on Landscape:
In shifting cultivation the land that is used for farming is rotated around throughout the years, which results in an uneven crop pattern for the land. The fields are known to have an irregularly-shaped formations, and have an under kept and unclean appearance with plants sprouting everywhere. It is quite different than having uniform-like and organized plot lands. Swidden agriculture also consumes a large amount of land, seeing as the farmers must have enough land to rotate throughout the years, as well as provide food to eat and sell. The constant cutting down of trees and burning away vegetation results in deforestation, and this act generally destroys the habitats of the wildlife living in those forests. This results in quite a lot of pollution, and therefore, climate changes developing within the area. This makes Swidden agriculture very harmful to the environment, with large masses of burning forests speeding up the process of global warming.
As previously brought up, intensive subsistence: wet rice not dominant farming effects the landscape (parts of India, and East Asia) by creating flat, plowed land for grain/crop growing. The land has to be very leveled and even for the best results in crop production. This type of farming is a good use of the landscape even though it's changing its leveling, because it uses space that typically wouldn't be used otherwise (around mountain areas). It's also a good use of the landscape because it produces different and important crops that wet rice dominant farming couldn't since it's not able to develop in those areas. This method of farming also helps improve the soil of the land by its system of crop rotation. So, the extra, harsher weathered areas of land are being put to use.
The picture below gives two examples of the landscape after intensive subsistence: wet rice not dominant farming. You can see the very popular crop: wheat being blown in the wind. It is on a flat upward incline. It proves to be leveled. Same is to say for the picture in the top left corner, it is inclining upwards flatly. The landscapes look more alive (greener, more colorful) rather than the rocks around. The soil is also healthier than the ground around the fields.
1. "Intensive Subsistence With Wet Rice NOT Dominant." Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. This source provided me with the types of crops produced with this method of farming. These including cash crops, grains, and household consumptions. This site also informed me about the methods of farming used, why, and where. It also provided me with a picture to show the fields. This website also provided me with info of crop rotation.
2. "Geog100." : 6: Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. This source provided me with information and explanation for the effects of intensive subsistence: wet rice not dominant farming on the landscape. It also gave specific examples of areas of where this farming took place. They also provided me with the picture I used in my last slide to demonstrate the leveling on land. It includes two pictures and a brief explanation of why it is where it is.
3. A man following two animals being used to plow the land. Digital image. Feed Your Brains. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. I used this source to show the use of animals in intensive subsistence: wet rice not dominant farming. It is very similar to wet rice dominant but represented by different types of animals rather than just bison or water buffalo. This source provides a good visual of the fields in the distance and can be inferred to have mild weather climate. It also shows the same crop being used across the field which refers back to crop rotation farming.
4. An Indian woman farmer collecting maize. Digital image. FAO Corporate Document Repository. Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, n.d. Web. I used this picture to show a common crop grown with intensive subsistence: wet rice not dominant farming. She is surrounded by fields of that years crop: maize. I chose this because accurately shows the large production of a household consumption grain.
Commercial farming and fruit farming is seen mainly in more developed countries and is also known as "Truck" farms or bantering. It is known as intensive and heavily relied on machinery. The human power they have is heavily relied on undocumented workers, this keeps the labor costs low.
Truck farming is seen most in South East United States, because of it's long growing season and the accessibility with large markets in N.E. United States. Some of the crops are sold fresh to consumers, while most are sold to large processors, where they will be frozen or canned. Truck farming is only specialized in few crops such as apples, lettuce, tomatoes, and cherries.
Truck farming has negative effects toward the environment such as pollution and harming the land. This is caused by a heavy dependence of machinery and technology. Effects of this includes deforestation and an over usage of irrigation and water supply. Although it has caused many improvements in the world of technology, but has caused many negative effects in the environment.
The land on which the cattle is grazing on is completely brown with no green on it, which means that the soil has eroded and can not sustain any crops on it. In the atmosphere we can also see many black gases that are polluting our air and environment.
1. "Ranching." National Geographic Education. N.p., 08 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
This source provided me with a picture for the farming methods of ranching. I chose this picture because it captures the cowboys herding cattle and it also shows the dry and temperate climate that is associated with ranching. I also used this source to write about the crops and the effect on the environment of ranching. This source explained each topic in very good detail and gave a lot of good example. I also used this source to write about the crops produced and the effect on the environment of ranching. It provided me with a lot of examples for each topic.
2. "Ranching Lite." Ranching Lite. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
This source provided me with another picture for the farming method of ranching. I chose this picture because it displays a cowboy looking after his cattle. This picture shows that ranching is done by human hands and that it is not done by any advanced technology like in other agriculture methods.
3."Anglo-American." Wyhs-human-geography -. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
This source provided me with a picture for the crops produced by ranching. This picture shows one of the main "crops" produced by ranching- cattle. This is the most common product produced by ranching. This picture also captures the climate in which these crops are being produced which is dry and hot.
4. "Hide Prices Ride Leather Boom." WSJ. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016
This source provided me with a picture for the crops produced by ranching and how these crops are consumed by the people. This picture displays a man washing the skin of a cow, which is a "crop" produced by a cow. Leather is one of the most demanded products from ranching. The crops produced in ranching are not only food but can also be used for many other purposes, like fashion.
5. "Ranching." National Geographic Education. N.p., 08 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
This source provided me with a picture of how ranching harms the environment and what it does to the Earth's atmosphere. The picture displayed shows multiple effects that ranching has on the environment including: polluting the soil, creating greenhouse gases, and emiting dangerous amounts of carbon.
Dairy farming is the most important commercial farming located near urban areas. It takes place in northeast U.S., southeast Canada, and northwest Europe. Although, India is the number one producer in dairy. This type of farming was a process in which humans milked animals such as cows by hand (most commonly women did so), but currently mechanized machines are used to milk cows. Cows are kept together on large farms. These farms have to be under constant watch by the farmers. Farms milksheds (the ring surrounding a city/market in which the dairy is not perishable) today are within 500 km. Cows in smaller farms are usually kept outside to graze grass, though others can be pen fed. Both require a lot of maintenance and labor on the farmers part.
A small dairy farm owner is shown pouring milk into a bucket after hand milking a cow. This is a process that takes longer as you tell by bucket just starting to get full. She is most likely a northwestern European woman dairy farmer. She is using an older method of milking and is embracing the old customs of woman milking cows. Here the cows have plenty of room to roam, in comparison to if they were in a big name dairy farm which would most likely be full.
YouTube video in Ecuador demonstrating the "slash and burn" method of agriculture:
a diagram that explains the cycle of shifting cultivation:
The image on the right shows the unevenness of the farmland, shown in patches.
The image on the left displays the amount of pollution created and of the deforestation.
After the farming of dairy, several products can be made from them. The first thing made in dairy farms is milk. Milk is produced for the consumption of consumers in the market/city. Milk and other dairy products have to be made relatively close by the city since they are easily perishable foods. In some cases where the dairy farms are too far from the city/market then that farm will sell their milk to another type of dairy producer. The dairy producers of cheese, butter, and more. The cheese and or butter can be kept better and more easily than just milk alone. Many other food products can be made from dairy milk such as creams, custards, and different sweets and pastries. Dairy production (which is processed) is vital to food system on a global scale.
This picture, in contrast to the picture above shows a farm that uses a rotary milking parlor to farm dairy faster than the method above. This is a farm located in Germany using a more modern version of dairy farming. The cows are also visibly kept more together rather than given space to roam due to saving space and increasing production
The picture on the left shows the several different dairy products produced by dairy farms. What we most commonly think of when we hear dairy is milk and cheese. This picture accurately shows both, plus more. Presented is milk, yogurt, condensed milk, butter, and a variety of cheeses. These products are common household consumptions that people around the world base their diets on. Dairy will most likely always be a need due to its ability to make the several different foods we consume weekly/daily.
Effects on Landscape:
The effects of dairy farm regions (northeast U.S., India, southeast Canada, and northwest Europe) have on the landscape are a huge rising problem. Because some organic dairy farms are contempt with keeping their cows on grass-fed diets, they are creating degradation/overgrazing on their large amount of land. This is ruining the soil and land creating dry patches that cannot be revived or further used. Another problem with dairy farms and the landscape they occupy is the water pollution they create due to run off of their manure in rivers nearby. Pollution of rivers can kill the river wildlife and contaminate possible drinking water for people or other animals. Besides polluting water, cows can also be consuming too much water. In order to create good milk cows need a lot of water, but if they continue this then water shortages will occur for us and them. Most importantly, dairy farms is a source of greenhouse gas production due to their housing and manure conditions.
The picture above gives an accurate representation of a bad environmental effect dairy farming has on its landscape. Here the manure of the cows inside the pen is being dispensed into the outside river. Although manure is a good fertilizer on land, the over excessive amount shown in the water is polluting the river. There is an obvious murky, swirly, mixture of different substances mixing in the river. From this the inference that contamination is taking place would be correct. The whole pen in surrounded by manure inside and out which will create further health issues for the cows and land.
1. "The Animal That the Nomad Chooses to Herd Depends on the - APHG - 1." The Animal That the Nomad Chooses to Herd Depends on the - APHG - 1. College Preparatry School Of Ame, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. I believed this a useful source because it gave me terms associated with dairy farming such as milkshed, and its definition. Also, it provided me with regions around the world that produce the most dairy which i found useful. The Vunen Theory seemed most connected to this site since it included different rings compared to the market/city and it gave me basic understanding and info of what happens to dairy products, where, and why.
2. "Farm Practices." Dairy Production and Products: . FAO, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. This source assisted me in creating my analysis about the effect of dairy farming on the landscape and gather enough information about it to summarize it myself. It included many environmental factors that went into play with dairy farming. Not only that, it also informed me on dairy products and uses. I was also given a picture that I ended up using in my first slide to represent dairy farming methods and was able to gather enough info for a thorough caption.
3. Cow manure/runoff in a river. Digital image. Vegan Outreach. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. I chose to use this picture because it provided a good visual of river pollution due to the effects of cow manure/runoff.
4. Cows in rotating milking parlor. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. I found this picture a useful part to the dairy farming topic because it shows the process of fast production dairy. By having a circular parlor of milking machines being used on cows I could contrast it to more organic dairy farms who milk cows individually. This picture was also a good example of modern dairy farming.
5. Dairy products. Digital image. Advances in Dairy Research. N.p., n.d. Web.
These are just some examples of the crops produced in areas using shifting cultivation.
Grain farming differs in LDCs and in MDCs. In LDCs grain farming is considered a subsistence farming method, meaning that the crop produced is directly consumed, while in MDCs the crop is sold to big food product manufacturers. The leading crops produced by grain farming are wheat and corn. Other crops produced by grain farming include rice, soybeans, oats, and barley. The products from grain farming are used for human consumption rather than for animal feed. Wheat can produce many different products including flour and bread. Half of all wheat exports are from the US and Canada (the breadbasket of the world). Corn or some corn-by product is found in nearly all foods produced by farmers today. Some of those products are cereal foods, gum, hand soap, and antibiotics. Areas where grain farming takes place are the Pampas (Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil), Ukraine, Russia steppe, and Australia.
The image on the left shows a combine going through a field of wheat, which is the main crop produced by grain farming.
The map above displays the main crops in every country in the world.
1. "Cereal Farming." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
This source provided me with the information for the farming methods and crops produced by ranching. It provided a lot of good details on the way that grain farming is performed and gave examples of where that type of method s located. It also listed a lot of different crops that are associated with grain farming. I chose this source because it fully explained each detail associated with grain farming and also gave examples.
2. "Earth." New Internationalist All Posts RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
This source provided me with information on the differnt things that harm the environmet through the grain farming method. This article lists many bad things that are produced as an outcome of grain farming. What I liked about it was that after they explained the thing they gave the reader an example and provided the reader with a picture to even further explain the topic.
Farming Methods= Wital, Bryan. Combine Harvester.
Crops= Cortis, Bill Stormont. Combine Harvesting Wheat
Effects on Environment= Maclean, Alex A. Wheat Farm. N.d. Montana.
Grain farming is a very mechanized method of farming. There is a lot of advanced machinery that plays a role in the harvesting of grain crops. The principal machine that is used world-wide, in MDCs primarily, is called a combine harvester. his advanced machinery first cuts the wheat, then it breaks the grain out from the straw, cleans it, and then separates it into bags. Another very valuable machine is the reaper which also pushes the grain out of the plant. These machines are worth up to hundreds of thousands of dollars, that's why they aren't available to many people in LDCs. Farmers who farm using this method follow the harvest, meaning that they migrate north in the US. Grain farming is a type of extensive agriculture because it is spread across a large area of land and it is performed mainly for profit. Grain farming is also a modern method of farming because it involves the use of advanced technology, combines, reapers, etc. This method of agriculture is also considered commercial and not subsistence because the products mainly go for sale instead of the farmers own family. On the Von Thunen model grain farming is the furthest away from the city because the products produced are easily preserved and transported
This is an image of a combine that is working on a wheat field.
Plantations are a commercial type of agriculture, which means that the products produced are going to be sold. Plantations are located primarily in LDCs (especially Africa, Asia, and parts of America), but the crops are sold primarily to MDCs. Plantations usually grow crops called "cash crops". These crops include: coffee, tea, sugarcane, cotton, rubber, tobacco, and alcohol. These crops are used for human consumption. One plantation usually specializes in only one or two of these "luxury crops".
The image to the right demonstrates how plantation farms are set up in rows and it is all one crop. Plantation farms can be many hectometers long with only the one designated crop growing on the whole plantation.
The image above shows two people working on large piles of cocoa beans. Cocoa beans can be later produced to many different items, including chocolate. This image was chosen because it also shows African-Americans handling the work, which shows that majority plantations are found in Africa. This image shows the next step in plantation farming after the crops are harvested.
1. "Plantation | Agriculture." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
This source provided me with a lot of very useful information on the history of plantation farming, the general overview of the farming method, and with a lot of different examples of plantation farming in he world. For example one of the examples they gave was plantation farming in the US during the time of slavery. I chose this source because it also provided me with the crops produced by plantation farming and withe the areas that plantation farming occurs.
2. "Industrial Crop Production." GRACE Communications Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
This source provided me with all the information I needed for the effects on the landscape portion of plantation farming. I chose this source because it thoroughly explains every single bad effect that plantation has on the environment. It explains the effects of monocropping, overuse of water, and many other bad effects that plantation farming has on the enviornment.
Farming methods= A cotton plantation on the Mississippi, lithograph by Currier & Ives, 1884
Women Harvesting Tea Leaves - Tea Plantation (india). 2013. West Bengal 734426, India, n.p.
Crops= Forever Aloe Vera Fields, Rezwan Khan
Effects on Landscape= Parker, Edward. Intensive Agriculture. N.d. Gulf of California, Mexico, n.p.
A Mono Cultivated Potato Field. N.d. Fort Fairfield, Maine, n.p
Plantation farming is a form of commercial farming, where most of the products are produced in LDCs and then sold to MDCs. This agriculture is a type of extensive farming. Since the plantations can be many hectometers long, the labor force needed to cultivate the land is very substantial. There are numerous people working on the actual farm, harvesting the crops, and there are also people working in the factories near the plantation which handle the harvest. The labor force usually consists of unskilled or semi-skilled workers with a central direction. For the plantation to thrive, a tropical climate is needed. This is why most plantations are located in Africa, Asia, South America and parts of America. These places have a high annual temperature as well as a high annual rainfall, which is perfect for the crops to cultivate. Plantation farming is not very advanced and does not include a lot of new technology.
The image depicts a scene from a plantation during the time of slavery in the US. In the picture there is a lot of people working on the field, gathering crops or organizing the crops. In the background of this image there are factories in which the second part of the labor is done.
The image above in contrast to the other picture depicts a scene from a modern day plantation. As you can see not that much has changed. There are still people working the fields by hand. In this image the factories aren't showed, but there are still factories that used in modern day plantation farming.
This image shows the product of ranching before it is altered into anything else. The cattle in the image will be slaughtered and then used as food for humans, dairy products, and even material for clothing.
The man is washing a cows skin that will be used as leather or as a carpet. This cow has already been slaughtered and the meat from the cow has been sold to a meat packing company. This cow has also been providing its owner with milk to make dairy products.
This is a farm in Sierra Leone showing a typical upland farmhouse where rice is grown.
This image is of a farm in the Peruvian Amazon, where a forest was destroyed and maize seedlings take its place.
With mixed crop and livestock, farms plant many different types of crops and also breed and take care of farm animals. There are three methods to this way of farming, which can be identified through the land size used, the type of crops and animals tended, the geographical distribution, and the location of the market.
The first form
," where farmers may either use their own resources or trade and exchange valuable resources from different types of farms. For example, a cattle farmer may trade its cows' manure for the grain of a wheat farmer, so that the cattle farmer's animals get feed, and the wheat farmer obtains fertilizer for his crops.
The second form
is "Mixing within crop and/or animal systems." In this system, Farmers make a way to have different types of animals benefit from each other's doing. They therefore, stay together in one group, and are organized as a pair. An example for this would be cows and sheep grazing together on a farm, which reduces the chance of disease and also "optimizes biomass utilization."
The third form
Diversified versus Integrated systems
." These two system types are basically opposites. A diversified system has different types of crops and animals that are independent of each other, while an integrated system is thought of a recycling mechanism where every byproduct is used and little to nothing is wasted. An example would be that all animal/human waste are used as fertilizer for the crops, and the crops feed the animals, sort of like in a cycle. The way this form differentiates from the first and second form is that this is more for all throughout the farm, rather than just two type of animals/crops (second form) or about the trade between farmers (first form.) Diversified systems are more unlikely due to the wasting of available resources.
Diagram explaining the cycle in mixed crop and livestock:
Example of second form - cows and sheep grazing together:
Example of first and third form- farmer may have gotten feed from other farmers (first form) or from his/her own farm (third form).
In Mixed Crop and Livestock, there are many varieties of crops produced, due to the large assortment of plants and animals in the farms. The system itself would not work if there wasn't a mixture of different harvested produce. Mixed Crop and Livestock is very significant for the agricultural economy, with 70% of our milk supply and 60% of our meat supply coming from these regions. This justifies its importance, and without Mixed Crop and Livestock, most of our quantities of meat and dairy would plummet, and those two are in very high demand all throughout the world. Crops most prevalent that are grown in these areas are grains, as well as forms of herbs, maize, millet, cowpea, etc, The production of crops is centered on the animals that are possessed in the farm, since they need food in order to survive. These are not the only valuable substances gained. Fertilizer is also obtained from the dung of animals, as well as wool and animal hide.
1. "Characterization of Mixed Farms." Mixed Crop-livestock Farming. Agriculture and Consumer Protection, n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2016. This website explained the different forms of Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming methods, providing examples like the cows and sheep grazing co-dependently of each other. It also depicted real-life scenarios into which the first form of the method (on-farm versus between-farm) would be used, and explained the definition and characteristics of mixed crop and livestock farming.
2. Schubert, Cecilia. "Why Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems Are Central for Future Agriculture Development." New Article Outlines Importance of Mixed Crop-livestock Farm Systems in Africa CCAFS: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. Communications Officers, 24 Aug. 2015. Web. 22 Feb. 2016. This website provided valuable information concerning the product percentage of meat and dairy. It also explains the meaning of Mixed Crop and Livestock farming, and its impact on society, the environment, and the development of farming in the regions present.
3. A. C. Costales, U. Pica-Ciamarra, J. Otte. "A Living from Livestock." Livestock in a Changing Landscape: Social Consequences for Mixed Crop-Livestock Production Systems in Developing Countries (n.d.): n. pag. Livestock in a Changing Landscape: Social Consequences for Mixed CropLivestock Production Systems in Developing Countries. Feb. 2007. Web. 22 Feb. 2016. This website gives explicit detail on the changing livestock landscape, and gives examples on the growth and expansion associated with Mixed Crop and Livestock.
4.Moroni, Andrea. Farming Works, Sycamores Valley. Digital image. Flickr. N.p., 26 Nov. 2014. Web. 22 Feb. 2016
5. Rance, Laura. Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Can Be Good for the Soil. Digital image. Conservation and Livestock Can Be a Good Mix. Manitoba Cooperator, 6 Aug. 2014. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
6. Langdon, Kate. Negative effects of mixed crop and livestock. Digital image. <i>Better Understanding of Mixed Crop and Livestock Systems Needed under Climate Change</i>. World Agroforestry Centre, 7 Sept. 2015. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
3. Morgenstern, Kat. Wet rice farmers. Digital image. Sacred Earth. N.p., n.d. Web.
4. Natural rice. Digital image. Bloomberg Business. N.p., n.d. Web.
5. Bleached white Cambodian rice. Digital image. Syndicus Global. N.p., n.d. Web.
6. Rice paddy. Digital image. Getty Images. N.p., n.d. Web.
Pastoral Nomadism is a form of subsistence farming and mainly involves the herding of domesticated animals. The animals are fed crops from sedentary farms, which are traded for the animal goods, such as the skin, hair, or milk.It is considered traditional and extensive, because there is no machinery used, making it based on man power. Also, this method is mainly seen in Low Developed Countries, which means they don't have the resources to afford machinery. Movement is not random, the herders are highly educated in routes. Women and children are often seen involved in this type of farming.
Plantation farming can bring have many bad effects on the landscape. Plantation farms are all growing the same crop, this type of method is called mono cropping. Mono cropping is good for the economy but also harmful towards the environment. For example after years and years of planting the same thing the soil in that area can start to erode causing problems. Plantation farming is also a big leader on the use of pesticides. This can lead to elimination of certain species and it can lead to the decline in biodiversity. One major species that is at harm with the use of these pesticides is bees. Plantation farming also requires a lot of water and in non-tropical places (the US) water has to be taken from the ground and this type of water does not replenish itself, which can lead to many problems.
1. "Pastoral Nomadism." <i>Agriculture</i>. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. This article helped me with a further explanation of Pastoral Nomadism and the effect it has on the world. Also it has given me a sense of perspective from the herders and the way they live and make a living in the less developed countries.
2. "What to Look For When Buying Grain Trucks." What to Look For When Buying Grain Trucks. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb
3."Pushkar Fair 2012: Amazing Pictures from World's Largest Gathering of Livestock [PHOTOS]." <i>International Business Times RSS</i>. N.p., 23 Nov. 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
4. "Nomadic Pastoralism: A (Tentative) Definition." <i>Pastoralism Climate Change and Policy</i>. N.p., 24 Sept. 2013. Web. 22 Feb. 2016. The wording and perspective in this article was very helpful and informative. It went deeper into the vocabulary and technical terms of the subject, which further explained the process and formality of agriculture.
5. <i>Wikipedia</i>. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
The fields in the plantation are all lined with the same type of crop, mono cropping. In a few years after many growing seasons this soil will be eroded.
The field in this image image is completely brown with not one single crop growing on it. This is a picture of eroded soil which can be caused by mono cropping which is the main focus in plantation agriculture farming. The soil in the picture will not be able to cultivate anything for a very long time.
These two pictures show the after result of intensive subsistence: wet rice dominant farming. The picture on the left is how rice truly looks after cultivation, it is not yet bleached. The picture on the right represents rice that has been bleached and processed for the appeal of the consumer. This rice is most commonly what people in MDCs associate rice as.
This picture shows a man herding goats in Tunisia. Tunisia is a low developed country and has very dry and infertile land. Therefore,it is ideal for pastoral nomadism. The man is the main source of power and owns the ideal herding animals, such as goats.
Trucks are the ideal way of transporting the goods or crops produced from the fields to consumers or markets. It is based mainly on machinery and less man power.
The fields are very uniform and are very organized and large to increase bountifulness. This takes man power, but also a lot of machinery.
This shows an area of the Amazon rainforest that was affected by commercial gardening. The use of the land for agriculture has caused deforestation and negative effects on the environment. The Amazon Rainforest is a very important piece of the environment and should be cared for and preserved correctly.
1. "Amazon Rainforest from a Commercial Farmer's POV." <i>: Commercial Farming in the Rainforest</i>. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2016. I used this article, because it showed the negative effects of commercial gardening. Even though it has made a huge improvement in transporting goods, it has impacted the environment. Seeing the view point of the farmer is very important, because we get to experiences how they feel about the changes and causes of their product or crops.
2. "Is Modern Commercial Farming to Blame for Global Hunger?" Organic Authority. N.p., 13 Aug. 2015. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
3. "MDC LDC Agriculture Farm Types." <i>MDC LDC Agriculture Farm Types</i>. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. This guide helps me simplify and understand the key points of Truck Farming and what goes into the statistics of the topic. Although we live very different lives from farmers and cannot personally experience it they do, we should still be informed about their lives, because they are connected to our lives. If we want to be healthy through our food we should find out more about the region.
4. "Veganic Farming and Gardening." <i>- Animal Rights Zone</i>. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
5. "Profile." <i>Profile</i>. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
Grain farming is a type of agriculture that use genetically engineered (GE) crops as its crop. This can have many bad effects on the environment, especially when mixed with things such as pesticides. These type of actions can lead to soil erosion, bad water usage, and less biodiversity among species. Grain farming also uses the mono cropping method, which is what causes the soil to erode over the years. Grain farming would not be as successful as it is today if it weren't for GMOs (genetically modified organisms). Farmers use these GMOs because they grow quicker and hey can resist the harmful pesticides. This has its downsides. GMOs are bad for human consumption and they are not natural.
This picture shows a woman herding a group of camels. Camels are known as great herding animals, because it can survive in dry areas without a lot of food or water. Pastoral nomadism is a type of agriculture worked by mostly women and children, as shown in the picture a women is herding the camels.
This picture shows the climates and conditions where Pastoral Nomadism takes place. It's obvious why livestock are used instead of vegetation. The animals travel all throughout the affecting the areas with manure and by eating the vegetation that is.
This image portrays a wheat farm in the US. You can see the green is where there are still plants growing in the field and the brown is where the soil has eroded and cause that area to be not able to cultivate a crop. In a mono crop farming type this type of soil erosion is very common.
This picture again displays the organization of the crops and also the amount of variety within the farms. The farms produce crops that people will buy and having a certain variety increases profit and productivity. This then is picked, processed, and shipped to consumers or companies.
In the photograph shown on the right, was captured in the Sycamores Valley in Africa. The cows are feeding off of the crops that were grown in the farm, which is a perfect example of how the crops produced in Mixed Crop and Livestock farming depends on whether the animals can eat off of it or not. The system will not simply work without the nurturing of the animals as well.
Effects on the Landscape:
As Mixed Crop and Livestock have been on a higher demand, its technologies and advancement towards its products have improved. Meat and dairy gain the most economic output for these regions. In traditional farms, these types of methods are very environmentally-friendly and even cultivates the land, improving the farm area with self-produced resources. On the other hand, if the farms have evolved to a more progressive approach, it could do the climate more bad than good. With mechanized systems that aid in the tending of a multitude of crops and animals, as well as the development of new chemical fertilizers to speed up the growth of production in crops, it is constructing more pollution around the area and advocating negative climate change. Governments are forcing farmers to generate more produce, which is hurting the land, and causing soil erosion.
Effects on Landscape:
In the above picture, the picture depicts fertile soil and nutrient-rich grass, due to the biodiversity between livestock mixing, which gives a positive effect on the landscape. In the picture below, illustrates the negative alternative, which may happen if over production of crops and use for livestock is common in that land area.
1. Chand, Smriti. "Mediterranean Agriculture: Location and Characteristics (with Diagrams)." <i>YourArticleLibrarycom The Next Generation Library</i>. N.p., 08 Feb. 2014. Web. 23 Feb. 2016. <span>This website aided in the location of Mediterranean agriculture, the factors dependent on it, and the different aspects of it. It provided example of the crops produced in the certain areas of Mediterranean land and explained how each one is farmed and cultivated.</span>
2. Ohray, Sanjud. "MEDITERRANEAN AGRICULTURE." <i>Agriculture Science</i>. N.p., 19 Apr. 2010. Web. 23 Feb. 2016. <span>This website gave further insight on the climate in the Mediterranean and illustrated more detail for the second and fourth aspect of these regions, which are Viticulture and Animal Grazing.It showed examples of where some of the crops can be found, and the cities where they are most prevalent.</span>
3. Stephens, Julia. Irrigation in the Mediterranean Region. Digital image. Central Sierra Environmental Resource Center. N.p., 5 Dec. 2008. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
4. Abatis, Stamos, and Baris Korca. <i>On The Move</i>. Digital image. <i>City Box: Athens - Istanbul</i>. Michael Cacoyannis Foundation, 26 Oct. 2015. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
5. GRID-Arendal. <i>Agriculture and Population in the Mediterranean Basin</i>. Digital image. <i>Grid Arendal</i>. N.p., 19 Nov. 2013. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
6. "Result Filters." <i>National Center for Biotechnology Information</i>. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 22 Apr. 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
7. <i>Water Use Efficiency</i>. Digital image. <i>Department of Water Resources</i>. Integrated Water Management, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
Farming in the Mediterranean is extensive, and the factors in which this type of agriculture takes bank on is: the total annual amount of rainfall, length of summer drought, availability of melting snow, local soil conditions, and price fluctuations in local and world market. There are four Aspects;
First Aspects: Orchard Fanning
is an essential part to the economy in these areas, seeing as it is the aspect with the highest profit and gives the reputation of the Mediterranean itself. This sort of "fruit farming" is most prevalent due to the warmer climate, and irrigation may also be used to care for the crops. Some plants though, do not need irrigation and can withstand the lack of moisture and precipitation in these areas.
Second Aspect: Viticulture
, also known as grape cultivation, is a very articulate and intensive method, with a great deal of needs and demands in order to have a satisfactory crop product. Some factors that would benefit this aspect would be good moisture, temperatures and favorable land. In fact, the variety of grapes depend on these factors, seeing as the differentiations appear in the taste and flavor of the wines made from it.
Third Aspect: Cereal and Vegetable Cultivation
are thought to be the most crucial and relevant aspect in Mediterranean Agriculture. They obtain about half of the total acreage in Mediterranean countries. The way it is cultivated is that the seeds are sown in autumn, so that the winter rain may water them, and there will be a massive influx of crops in the spring with a meager amount of effort put in trying to tend for them.
Fourth Aspect: Animal Husbandry
is not quite common in these areas, but there are still some places in the Mediterranean where Livestock is tended for dairy farming. Farmers use the method of "transhumance," which moves the cattle up to the mountains in the summer, and migrates them down to the valleys in the winter months.
Irrigation, one of the methods to cultivate the crops, are for Orchard Fanning and are mostly found in the drier lands of the Mediterranean area.
Though animal husbandry is rare, transhumance is still practiced in the Mediterranean, and farmers are likely to move for their animals to graze in new areas.
From the four aspects of Mediterranean Regional methods, you can get a variety of crops and produce. In
, fruits high in citrus, as well as olives and fruits, are primarily harvested.
Viticuture (Grape Cultivation)
has a large assortment of different types of grapes, depending on their origin. These grapes that have been grown to perfection may be turned into sherry from Southern Spain, wine from West Portugal, or brandy from a basin in Western France. A staggering amount of cereals and grains are grown, which are used for pasta. Vegetables are also a part of this aspect, such as beans, lentils, onions, tomatoes (fruit), carrots, sugar beets, and leafy vegetables, which all come from
Cereal and Vegetable Cultivation
. And finally,
produces meat and dairy, which is a significant food source in places such as Lombardy plain, Ebro basin, and the San Joaquin valley of California.
This map shows the distribution of crops produced in the Mediterranean area around Europe. The colors represent the aspect of farming that is prevalent in that area, and where it is mainly produced and consumed.
Recently, the landscape in Mediterranean lands have become increasingly warmer, colder, more humid, and drier. This is a consequence of Global Warming. As we begin to use more technology and create more pollution in the world, the atmosphere is undergoing serious changes. In terms of the effects of farming methods in the Mediterranean, the aspect of Orchard Fanning has altered the environment. Uses of irrigation strip from the water supply as it makes its way through the crops. The land is also modified to make irrigation easier and the transport from water to plants much easier.
In the photograph on the right of this slide, the fields that are shown are from California, which is a Mediterranean region, contrary to popular belief. It illustrates the irrigation in these farms and how the landscape was altered for the movement of water to the plants.