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March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
Transcript of March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
Planning and organization
August 28, 1963
The demands of the marchers
Southern racial violence
Segregation in public places
Unequal voting requirements
Job training for blacks as well as whites
Equal opportunity in employment
Equality in education and public accommodations
A $2-an-hour minimum wage nationwide
Speakers and Singers
- Racism since the American revolution:
slavery still present in the southern part of the USA
- The discrimination of black people in the USA:
Bus, schools, jobs...
December 1962: Idea from A. Phillip Randolph and Bayard Rustin
May 1963: Randolph announcing the "October Emancipation March on Washington for Jobs"
Martin Luther King, Jr.
End of racism in the United States of America
Declaration of independence
The Emancipation Proclamation
The United States Constitution
Mahalia Jackson shouted from the crowd, “Tell ’em about the dream, Martin!
"I have a dream" Speech
A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin
"we shall return again and again to Washington in ever growing numbers until total freedom is ours."
The list of demands
Youngest speaker at the event-23 years old
How little it had done to protect southern blacks and civil rights workers under attack in the Deep South
"Get in and stay in the streets of every city, every village and hamlet of this nation until true freedom comes"
"How I got over"
Told King to tell the world about the
"He's Got the Whole World in His Hands"
Scheduled to sing the National Anthem
Bob Dylan and Joan Baez
"Blowin' in the Wind".
uncomfortable as a white man serving as a public image for the civil rights movement
Leaders from many equality organizations
- NAACP (national association for the advancement of colored people)
- National Urban League
- SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
- CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)
- SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Started for integration in the fields of education, housing, transportation and public accommodations for the black people
Civil rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women
Ended unequal application of voter registration requirements
Stopped racial segregation in schools, at the workplace
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Prohibits discrimination in voting
Signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson
Considered one of the most effective pieces of civil
rights legislation ever enacted in the United States
June 1963: Formation of the Council for United Civil Rights Leadership
Leaders: "The Big Six"
- Roy Wilkins
- Whitney Young
- Martin Luther King Jr.
- James Farmer
- John Lewis
June 22, 1963: Big Six met President Kennedy
The progress in the elimination of this problem:
Demonstration against discrimination
(1941-1947): Source of inspiration
I have a Dream:
The beginning of the revolution.
July 2, 1963: Final decisions and plan announced
July 17, 1963: President Kennedy approved and spoke favorably the March
- Bayard Rustin was worried it might turn violent so assembled 4000 volunteers marshals
- Malcom X said the March was a "farce on Washington"
- Activists received bomb threats at their homes and in their offices
- Five airplanes were grounded on the morning of August 28 due to bomb threats.
- A hole between King's eyes
- President "Nigger Lover"
- Nobody was sure how many people would turn up for the demonstration in Washington, D.C. Some travelling from the South were harrassed and threatened.
Chicago and New York City (as well as some corporations) agreed to designate August 28 as "Freedom Day" and give workers the day off.
Passage of meaningful civil rights legislation
Withholding Federal funds from programs that tolerate discrimination
Authority for the Attorney General to institute injunctive suits when constitutional rights are violated
2,000 buses, 21 chartered trains, 10 chartered airliners, and uncounted cars converged on Washington
200 000 to 300 000 are estimated to have participated
75–80% of the marchers were black
The Pentagon readied 19,000 troops in the suburbs
The city banned all sales of alcoholic beverages
The march drew a media assembly larger than the Kennedy inauguration two years earlier
Jails shifted inmates to other prisons to make room for those arrested in mass arrests