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DIVERSITY OF MATERIALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

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Michaela Angela Posadas

on 17 August 2014

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Transcript of DIVERSITY OF MATERIALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

SOLUTIONS
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, which may be solids, liquids, gases, or a combination of these.
BASIC SCIENCE INQUIRY SKILLS
The 6 Basic Science Inquiry Skills
Science Inquiry Skills
INTEGRATED SCIENCE INQUIRY SKILLS
SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURE
METALS AND NONMETALS
Metals have one to three electrons in their outer shell, whereas non-metals have four to eight electrons.
ACIDS AND BASES
Acids and bases are two types of corrosive substances. Any substance with a pH value less than 7 is considered acidic, whereas a pH value greater than 7 is a base.
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS
Elements are pure chemical substances that have one or one type of atom. Compounds are chemical substances that are formed from one or more elements, held together by chemical bonds..
DIVERSITY OF MATERIALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
Michaela Angela M Posadas
The science process skills are the tools that use to investigate the world and to construct science concepts. There are two types of science inquiry skills they are BASIC and INTEGRATED.
OBSERVING
using the 5 senses to gather information about an object or event.
COMMUNICATION
Representing observations, ideas, theoretical models, or conclusions by talking, writing,
drawing, making physical models, and so forth.
CLASSIFYING
grouping or ordering objects or events into categories based on properties or criteria.
MEASURING
using both standard and nonstandard measures or estimates to describe the dimensions of an object or event.
PREDICTING
stating the outcome of a future event based on a pattern of evidence.
INFERRING
making an "educated guess" about an object or event based on previously gathered data or information.
Formulating Hypothesis
stating the proposed solutions or expected outcomes for experiments. These proposed solutions to a problem must be testable.
Identifying Variables
stating the changeable factors that can affect an experiment. It is important to change only the variable being tested and keep the rest constant
Designing Investigations
designing an experiment by identifying materials and describing appropriate steps in a procedure to test a hypothesis.
Collecting and Analyzing Data
collecting qualitative and quantitative data as observations and measurements. Interpreting data, identifying errors, evaluating the hypothesis, formulating conclusions, and recommending further testing where necessary.
Formulating Models
recognizing patterns in data and making comparisons to familiar objects or ideas.
TWO COMPONENTS OF SOLUTION
Solvent
Present in greater amount
Solute
Present in small amount
Solubility
solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a certain temperature.
Saturated
solution that contains the maximum amount of solute dissolved by a given amount of solvent
Unsaturated
it contains less solute than the maximum amount it can dissolve at a given temperature
Pure substances cannot be separated into any other kinds of matter, while a mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances.
Substances
matter which cannot be separated into any other kind of matter when using the physical or chemical process
matter that has the same composition and properties
a pure substance has only one component
Mixtures
combination of two or more substances which are not united using a chemical procedure.
has variable combinations.
can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous
Elements
An element is an atom or molecule made of a single type of atom.
Elements cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. They are the building blocks for all other substances
Compounds
A compound is a molecule made of two or more different elements.
can be separated into simpler substances only by chemical means.
Acids
acids produce H+ ions in aqueous solutions
acids are proton donors
acids are electron pair acceptors
taste sour
acids change litmus paper from blue to red
evolve hydrogen gas (H2) upon reaction with an active metal (such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, zinc, aluminum)
Bases
bases produce OH- ions in aqueous solutions
bases are proton acceptors
bases are electron pair donors
taste bitter
feel slippery or soapy
they can turn red litmus to blue
Metals are malleable, which means they can be beaten to thin sheets.Non-metals are very brittle.
Metals have a high to moderate density, whereas non-metals have low to moderate density
Metals are opaque and non-metals are transparent.
Metals are present in solid form at room temperature, and non-metals are present in solid and liquid forms at room temperature.
Unlike non-metals, metals are ductile, which means they can be stretched into wires.
Metals have a metallic luster, while non-metals do not.
Metals tend to lose their valence electrons, but non-metals share or gain valence electrons.
Metals are good conductors of electricity and heat, but non-metals are poor conductors.
Metals
Malleable
Ductile
Luster
High Density
Good Conductors of heat and electricity
High melting point
Nonmetals
Poor Conductors of heat and electricity
Dull
Brittle solids
Most are gases at room temperature
Low density
Low melting point
Not malleable
Not ductile
Metalloids
An element whose properties are intermediate between those of metals and solid nonmetals. They are electrical semiconductors.
Can be shiny or dull,
Conductivity of heat and electricity
Better than nonmetals but not as good as metals
Solid at room temperature.
Ductile
Malleable
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