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Transcript of Nano Timeline
at the Nanoscale 1930s-1960s 70s, 80s, and 90s 4th Century- Lycurgus Cup;
Gold and silver nanoparticles make it appear opaque green from the outside, but translucent red when a light is placed inside. 9th- 14th Centuries- Lustreware bowl;
A glittering ceramic glazed contained silver, copper, and other metal nanoparticles. 6th-15th Centuries- south rose window @ Notre Dame Cathedral;
Gold Chloride and other metal oxides and chlorides created rich, lasting colors. 13th-18th Centuries- Damascus saber blades;
Contained carbon nanotubes and cementite wires; made the blades lightweight and strong. 1936- Field Emission Microscope;
Ability to "almost" see at the atomic scale. 1951- Field Ion Microscope;
Ability to see atoms on a surface using a sharp metal tip. 1956- Arthur von Hippel at MIT introduced concepts of “molecular engineering”. 1958- Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments designed and built the first integrated circuit, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 2000. 1959: Richard Feynman of the California Institute of Technology gave what is considered to be the first lecture on technology and engineering at the atomic scale 1974: Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology 1981: Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM invented the scanning tunneling microscope, allowing scientists to "see" individual atoms for the first time. 1985: Rice University researchers discovered the buckyball, which is a molecule resembling a soccerball in shape and composed entirely of carbon. 1986: The atomic force microscope is invented, which has the capability to view, measure, and manipulate materials down to fractions of a nanometer. 1989: Don Eigler and Erhard Schweizer at IBM's manipulated 35 individual xenon atoms to spell out the IBM logo. 1991: Sumio Iijima is credited with discovering the carbon nanotube (CNT) 1990's- early 2000's 1993: Moungi Bawendi of MIT invented a method for controlled synthesis of nanocrystals (quantum dots), paving the way for applications ranging from computing to biology to high-efficiency photovoltaics and lighting. 1999: Cornell University researchers Wilson Ho and Hyojune Lee probed secrets of chemical bonding by assembling a molecule from its parts. with a scanning tunneling microscope. 1999: Chad Mirkin at Northwestern University invented dip-pen nanolithography, leading to reproducible “writing” of electronic circuits as well as patterning of biomaterials for cell biology research, nanoencryption, and other applications. 2000s: Companies started using nanotechnology to improve products from car bumpers and tennis rackets to sunscreen and electronic display screens. President Clinton created the National Nanotechnology Initiative to fund research and communicate with other country's government agencies. 2003-Future? 2003: Researchers at Rice University developed gold nanoshells, which serve as a platform for the discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer without invasive biopsies, surgery, or destructive radiation or chemotherapy. 2004: The State University of New York at Albany launched the first college-level education program in nanotechnology in the United States. 2006: James Tour and colleagues at Rice University built a nanoscale car made with four spherical buckyball wheels. 2009–2010: Nadrian Seeman and colleagues at New York University created several DNA-like robotic nanoscale assembly devices. Another Seeman creation is a “DNA assembly line.” 2010: IBM used a silicon tip measuring only a few nanometers to chisel away material from a substrate to create a complete nanoscale 3D relief map of the world one-one-thousandth the size of a grain of salt—in 2 minutes and 23 seconds. What does the future hold?