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Comps Defense 2012
Transcript of Comps Defense 2012
Comparing and Contrasting Yin’s and Stake’s Approaches to Case Study Research For both authors, taking a microscope to something small must be done in relation to a greater context, considering the relationship of the something small -- the case -- to “real-world contexts.” vs. vs. Other areas in which authors diverge: Researcher's role
Stake’s assumption that research itself, is laden with value. Therefore,“It is better to give the reader a good look at the researcher” (Stake, 1995, p. 95).
Yin urges researchers to clarify “whether the presentation represents your trying to be as neutral and factual as possible, whether it represents the view of (one or more of) the field participants in your case study, or whether it represents your own deliberate interpretation of what has been observed” (Yin, 2012, p. 11). Situating case study within qualitative research:
Stake devotes an entire chapter to it and views the subjective nature of qualitative research as integral to research itself
Yin sees case study as its own separate method - related to but not wholly part of qualitative domain. Areas in which authors converge: Generalizations in case study
Case study as poor basis for generalizations
Not intended to represent a sampling point from larger population
consider them petite generalizations
generalizable to the extent that others see something familiar in representation of case
Yin sees case studies as generalizing to other situations “on the basis of analytic claims” (p. 19) The importance of research questions in case study
Stake (1995): “the best research questions evolve during the study” ( p. 33)
Yin: Case study protocol - set of questions to be addressed during data collection that are directed at researcher (like a field agenda) Applying Stake and Yin to my own research •Compare and contrast Yin and Stake's approaches to case study. In what ways are they similar and different? Which approach (or combination thereof) is most appropriate for your study and why? Question 1: Type of case study:
Stake’s (1995) description of why we engage with instrumental case study: we have “a puzzlement, a need for general understanding, and feel that we may get insight into the question by studying a particular case” (p. 3)
I seek an understanding of what it means to feel prepared to teach, as experienced and perceived by preservice teachers
Will turn to collective case study Aligning with Stake Role of researcher -- be transparent as possible
Situate case study within subjective nature of qualitative research: “The function of research is not necessarily to map and conquer the world but to sophisticate the beholding of it” (Stake, 1995, p. 43). Aligning with Yin Suggestion of a case study protocol
Importance of theoretical underpinnings
Use audiotapes (vs. Stake) Question 2:
Swimming Upstream Towards Reform
in How English and English Teachers Get Taught Question 2: Given our history (both in research and practice) in teaching English Language Arts Education and preparing ELA teachers, what are the current directions in our field, and what might those look like in the future to build success? This is the climate in which we're preparing teachers -- specifically English teachers. Within world of English education, a call for more research into how we train future English teachers. Why have things remained the same in English teacher preparation?
What can we change about teacher preparation programs to better train future English teachers? If the educational policies at various levels only serve to enforce the commonsense “mastery” approaches to teaching and learning, how can we achieve real reform or innovation in how English gets taught and how English teachers get prepared? English educators offer solutions: So what does this look like in practice? Question Three: A Look at the Concepts and Processes Behind the Act of Coding Data Question 3 In order to engage in a qualitative study, it is necessary to understand the process of coding. Your charge is to develop a better understanding of coding by addressing the following questions:
- What is coding? What are the different types of codes?
- How does the researcher’s theoretical perspective impact the coding process? (Feel free to use your own theoretical perspective as an example.)
- What role does memoing play in the coding process?
- How is reliability established in the coding process?
- Describe the process you will use to code your dissertation data. (List all of the steps as well as provide rationales for your choices.) The impact of the researcher’s theoretical perspective on the coding process According to Punch (2006), there are several ways in which a researcher’s lens can impact the research study: It usually means making certain assumptions and adopting certain systems of meaning, and rejecting others. It might influence the researcher to focus on certain issues and to raise certain questions and problems for research. It might influence both the discourse and the methods of research. […] It might influence the way research questions are asked, with subsequent implications for methods (Punch, 2006, pp. 31 - 32). What to study and how to study it are impacted by a researcher’s theoretical perspective: This lens will ultimately trickle down to the coding process. As the creation of codes are connected to theory, the literature, and to the assumptions underlying the research questions, the coding process itself becomes a product of the researcher’s specific lens or way of looking at the world. The role of memoing: Memos are: “short phrases, ideas, or key concepts that occur to the reader” (Creswell, 2007, p. 151). “Informal records of thinking aloud” or “your personal, private record of wild ideas and possible leads” (Richards, 2009, p. 81). Question Four:The History of English Teacher Preparation and the Implications for Current Research and Practice What is the history of English teacher preparation -- both in terms of research and practice?
What impact does this history have on our current understanding of what it means to be well-prepared to teach English language arts?
Does research inform practice in terms of English teacher preparation?
Are there best practices and/or key components to English teacher preparation? If so, what are they? If not, why and, perhaps, what should they be? Question 4 Partly a result of the “growing dissatisfaction with the influence of colleges upon high school programs, making them too restrictive and irrelevant for many, if not most, students” (Grommon, 1968, p. 492). NCTE Founded in 1911
by Fred Scott, James Fleming Hosic, and Edwin Miller Training of English teachers fell on English scholars; led to tension between subject of English and subject of teaching English More reports, figures, recommendations mid-20th century Impact of the history of English teacher preparation on our current understanding of what it means to be well-prepared to teach English language arts Best practices and key components to English teacher preparation The relationship between research and practice in English teacher preparation References Questions Questions Questions Questions -Smagorinsky & Whiting (1995) examined the syllabi of 81 English methods courses and present criteria for evaluating syllabi. They put forth some best practices for the methods course, whereby learning should be “theoretically informed, […] situated in meaningful activity, […] transactional, […] process-oriented, students should be involved in reflection, learning should be holistic, students should be involved in good work” (Smagorinsky & Whiting, 1995, pp. 22-28).