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Carbon

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Jasleen Kaur

on 6 January 2015

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Transcript of Carbon

Carbon (C,6)
Just the facts
Did you know?
Symbol: C
Atomic Number (number of protons in the nucleus): 6
Atomic Weight: 12.0107
Group Number: 14
Group Name: None (Other/Non-metals)
Period: 2
Non-metallic and makes four bonds to other atoms (4 electrons in outer shell)
Electrons in shell 1: 2 (no charge)
Electrons in shell 2: 4 (no charge)
Neutrons (most common/stable nuclide): 6
Oxidation States: 4,2
Atomic Radius: 0.91Å
Atomic Volume: 4.58cm3/mol
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p2.
Standard State at room temperature: Solid
Melting point: 3,550 degrees C
Boiling point: 3,880 degrees C (sublimation)
Density: 2.2670 grams per cubic centimenter
This element is found in 3-5 forms: amorphous (lampblack, carbon black), graphite, buckyballs (fullerenes) and diamond. However, amorphous is often considered a form of graphite consisting of microscopic crystals.
Background
Although no one knows who originally discovered carbon, Antoine Lavoisier, a French scientist named carbon. His pioneering chemistry textbook: Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, published in Paris in 1789, lists carbon as an "oxidizable and acidifiable nonmetallic element".

Carbon was discovered in 3750 BC.

The origin of the name: Latin-corbo (defined as coal and charcoal)

Carbon is made in the interiors of stars, but it was not made by the Big Bang.
Modern and Historic Uses

Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, coke and gas
Provides framework for all tissues of plants and animals.
Used to develop polymers, fibres, paints, solvents, plastics and so forth.
Used in metal smelting, particularly important in iron and steel industries when in form of charcoal.
Sugar, starch, and paper are compounds of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen.
Graphite is used in pencils, to make brushes in electric motors and for lubrication.
Carbon black, a powdered form of carbon acts as the pigment in black printing ink and ink that is developed in Asian countries. Carbon black is also used in laser printer toner cartridges.
Fullerenes serve medical purposes such as blocking the inflammation that results from an allergic reaction.
Plants require carbon as a mean of survival and so do other organisms.

Graphite is also used to slow down down neutrons for atomic fission.
Industrial diamonds are useful for cutting rocks and drilling.
Diamond films are used to protect surfaces like razor blades.

Diamond is also a prized gemstone.
Carbon fibre is very strong, yet light weight material (currently used in tennis rackets, skis, fishing rods, rockets, airplanes.)
Proteins such as hair, meat and silk contain carbon as well as other elements.
Bibliography
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/compounds/ionicvscovalent.shtml
http://www.chemeddl.org/resources/TSTS/McMahon/McMahon9to12pg/TetravalentCarbon.html
http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele006.html
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elements/006_speak.html
http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/6/carbon
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biomath/tutorials/applications/carbon.html
"Carbon Element Rap." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 05 Jan. 2015.
Fatima Saleem and Jasleen Kaur 9A
Highest sublimation point of all elements
Combines with some metals at high temperatures to form metallic carbides
20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon.
Part of almost every compound in our bodies our bodies, systems, organs, etc. Furthermore, carbon which is the basic unit for organic molecules makes up a large portion of the human body's mass (second after oxygen).
Always been there even in the ancient times when it was just the black material left over after burning wood.
When any of the elements in the periodic table combine into groups of 2 or more, they form compounds. There are two types: ionic and molecular. A molecular compound is formed when atoms of elements are shared such as Co2 whereas ionic compounds are formed when an atom from one element transfers an electron to a different atom of that element.
Carbon Dating
Isolation: found naturally
Can also be made artifically
Natural Isotopes: 12C (98.89%) 13C (0.11%) 14C (trace)
chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen.
Conductivity-Electrical: 0.00061 106/cm and Thermal: 1.29 W/cmK
Graphite
Very soft (Moh's < 1)
Electrical conductor
Black in color
Less dense form
More reactive form
Flaky texture
Cost for 1 gram, 1 mole: $0.04, $0.48
Diamond
Very hard (Moh's = 10)
Electrical insulator
Transparent
More dense form
Less reactive form
Formed through atoms of carbon being pushed together over time in high pressured areas.
Luster: Adamantine. Rough stones have a greasy luster
Carbon dating is used to determine age of fossil remains. In the lifetime of an organism, carbon is brought into its cell by the environment in the form of either carbon dioxide or carbon based foods.It is used to build biologically important molecules like sugars. These molecules are later incorporated into the cells and tissues that make up living things. Therefore, organisms from a single-celled bacteria to the largest of the dinosaurs leave behind carbon-based remains.
Summary
As seen through the past slides, it can be said that carbon is significant for organic chemistry.

Carbon , being a non metal can bond with other chemical elements and itself, As a result. carbon forms nearly ten million compounds.

Additionally, carbon can take the form of the hard diamond and the soft graphite.

As a diamond it can be used as a gemstone and for drilling/cutting; graphite is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and to protect against rust; while charcoal is used to remove toxins, tastes, and odors. The isotope Carbon-14 is used in radiocarbon dating.
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