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Comprehension of Informational Text

Chapter 9 Summary in Literacy Assessment & Intervention for Classroom Teachers (3rd edition) by Beverly A. DeVries

Erin Reed

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of Comprehension of Informational Text

Comprehension of
Informational Text 1. Factors within the reader

2. Factors within the reader's environment

3. Factors within the text Teaching meaning helps a child realize their potential. Do you think think I could pass a test written in Swahili? Do you I am dumb? Factors Affecting the
Comprehension Process Organizational Structure
of Expository Texts Analysis of
Informational Texts Developing Critical
Literacy with
Expository Texts Assessment Quick
Clues Supplement textbooks with trade books and internet. Vary the levels, topics, and styles of expository texts in your classroom. 1. Chronology or Sequence
2. Description or Enumeration
3. Listing
4. Classifying or Hierarchy
5. Comparison/Contrast
6. Cause/Effect
7. Problem/Solution
8. Persuasion 1. Eye appeal
2. Traditional book features
3. Electronic text features
4. Writing style
5. Use of technical vocabulary
6. Author's assumption of reader's
background knowledge
7. Readability Basic Reading Skills (pg. 217) sight words, decoding, reading rate, comprehension, predictions, summarizes, connections, organizing text information, accessing background knowledge, vocabulary, identifying author's purpose and validity, synthesizing of various texts Prior Knowledge &
Experiences Interests & Attitudes When students experience environments outside their community they are introduced to new concepts in a natural setting which enriches their vocabulary and knowledge of the world.
**Including their experiences with informational texts** Positive and negative attitudes about learning and reading are strong influences on children. Show enthusiasm for all subjects. If that is not enough, find the topics and interests that promote positive attitudes. **C.37** Home Community School Some students have parents that take advantage of experiences and conversations - some students do not In either circumstance - the home is the most influential environment. Some communities value and can afford programs, services, and unique learning opportunities for their residents - some do not or cannot. A successful teacher;
encourages risk-taking
use variety of activities on a variety of topics
ask higher-level thinking questions
provides materials Reading informational texts requires more than decoding and literal comprehension skills. Students also need to be able to be able to perform higher-level thinking tasks such as Synthesize information
Analyze author's credentials
Apply critical-thinking skills Understanding Key Words Associated with Text Structure pg. 221 Order is important and often has to be inferred. An author's explanation of an event, object, or phenomenon in detail.
The reader must draw a mental picture to gain a better understanding. Benjamin Franklin was born on January 17, 1706. Benjamin began school when he was eight years old. When Ben was ten, he began to work in his father's shop. No are Japanese plays in which actors wear masks and move very slowly, telling story-poem through mime and dance. Authors may list things that fall into a category. Who lives in the rainforest?

Iguanas do.
Snakes do.
Jaguars do. Show relationships among contexts. Dolphins and humans have a lot in common, we are both mammals. Authors show how one event, subject, or object is similar to or different from another. Use the key words that help students understand how expository texts are organized. Often construct mental pictures. Readers need to be able to mentally picture the action as it happens. Beneath the crust is a region called the mantle. It is made of rock that is very hot. Rock of the mantle can flow, like thick tar. The crust floats on the mantle. Teachers should model their recognition of problems/solutions by making lists or graphic organizers. A type of writing designed to change readers' minds or thinking. Teachers should guide students to consider the author's point of view and language. Teachers should also advise students to consider other possible points of view. Propaganda a persuasive technique that involves distortion of facts or manipulation of readers. name calling, card stacking, plain folk, glittering generalities, testimonial, transfer, bandwagon Sequence for Teaching Expository Text Organizational Patterns 1. Introduce the organizational pattern by explaining when and why writers chose this particular structure.
2. Point out key words associated with the structure and share examples from the text.
3. Model ways students can determine text structures when key words are not used.
4. Introduce a graphic organizer for the pattern.
5. Read aloud a section of a book illustrating the text structure.
6. Ask students to listen for and identify the key words in the selection.
7. Have the class complete a graphic organizer illustrating the pattern type.
8. Ask students to locate examples of the structure in other informational texts.
9. Have students identify key words and create a graphic organizer for their informational text. Don't judge a book by its cover? ... or should we?
visual appeal is an important characteristic of informational text; attractive books and websites entice students to read. Appealing Traits print size, margins/white space, up-to-date graphics and photographs, easy to read charts, not clustered, many subheadings, text and graphics are clearly organized and arranged. Features that aid reader comprehension: table of contents, glossary, questions at the beginning and end of chapters, highlighted vocabulary. PROS: contain hyperlinks, pronunciation and definition of vocabulary, audios/videos CONS: do not usually have table of contents, just about anything can be posted online The formulas to determine readability are based on the number of syllables and the sentence lengths within passages. BUT, the formulas should not be the sole determinant of a text/trade book's readability. English Language Learners &
Expository Texts They first need to understand the academic vocabulary. Pictures will assist their comprehension. Simultaneously support their critical reading skills by asking them to state their point of view.

Give ELLs opportunities to ask questions and restate the information.

They must be reading at their independent level.

Create graphic organizers as they read. "Critical literacy challenges status quo and clarifies connections between knowledge and power." Does the author present dominant or the minority's point of view and what is the author's intent? Is the language biased? What words are use to sway the reader? What assumptions are formed about the different groups? Are these assumptions unfair and harmful to society? Are there any races that are in the classroom but not represented in the text? How do students of the forgotten race feel? What can the class do as a call to action? Readers must have: large bank of sight words, good decoding skills, letter-sound relationships, digraphs, diphthongs, consonant blends, and syllabication Informal Assessment informal reading inventories, rubrics, running records and miscue analysis, cloze and maze procedures, assessing reading interests, assessing background knowledge, vocabulary assessment, and assessing reader's growth *C.38* *C.39* Formal Assessment reading readiness, norm-referenced, and criterion-referenced Critical Literacy Assessment Determine what skills you want your students to develop and then choose an assessment based on those goals. Model for your students how to navigate and assess resources online. Assessment informs instruction. Encourage critical literacy in the classroom. *D.21* *D.22*
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