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13 Reasons Why
Transcript of 13 Reasons Why
(syntax, symbolism, theme) 5. Unconventional style (Dual Narrative) Thirteen Reasons Why deals with real issues teens face; isolation, peer pressure, rumours, sex, partying, etc... It deals with the issues of suicide and depression in a creative way. Showing Clay's viewpoint shows that someone did care about her, keeping the story from becoming overly dark. Glimpse two seperate points of view on each issue. How does the author keep readers engaged? Asher withholds information until it is necessary to keep readers curious. Leaves you wondering who/what the thirteen reasons are. Clay does not feel guilty after receiving the tapes, making us doubt his characterization of himself. Clay mentions a night at a party with Hannah often, making us want details. Clay mentions being intimidated by Hannah's reputation, strengthening the notion that people have taken the rumours about her to be the truth.
Clay refers to Hannah's strange, sudden changes in behavior, appearance and attitude. This confirms that there were outward signs of her depression.
Hannah speaks well about Clay in his tape, confirming our preconceived notions about his character.
Also, minor characters see Clay as a good person, re-enforcing this idea, building more suspense as to why he ended up as a reason for Hannah's suicide. The characters seem genuine and life-like. They are faced with realistic, plausible conflicts, and react to them in a believable manner. Direct Characterization We know from the tapes how Hannah feels towards her situation. She is observant, quick to judge character, and unwilling to take action to help herself, and once she has been betrayed, she is afraid to start trusting anyone else again. Through Clay's narration, we learn he is a well rounded character- good student, polite, motivated. However, he was afraid to get involved with Hannah because he was scared to ruin his "spotless reputation" from the rumours associated with her. Sentences are often fragmented, as the text is conversational. Clay is often shocked by what he learns from the tapes, so this helps portray his incomplete thoughts. Hannah also speaks in short phrases, which perhaps demonstrates that these tapes were difficult for her to record, or she wants to make her message simple so everyone understands her pain. Syntax Scars: The small scar left over Hannah's eye after a fight with a friend. It represents the scars, physical and emotional, that were left on Hannah by these small acts of betrayal. No Funeral: Hannah imagines her funeral several times in the tapes. Clay, however, knows that there never was one. This could represent the lack of closure that the people who knew Hannah felt, both from her sudden, early death; and the lack of an opportunity to say a final goodbye. Symbols Theme Closure: Hannah never finds closure after each conflict, leading to the downward spiral ending in her suicide. The novel deals with Clay's struggle to find closure after losing Hannah, who he never got a chance to truly know, until it was too late. Guilt & Blame: Hannah created the tapes lay blame to the people who had led her to take her life, and realize how much their actions had an impact on her. Clay feels guilty, even though Hannah does not blame him for her death; he realizes that by being afraid of her (un-earned) reputation, he is just as much to blame for her death as the others on the list. Actions and Consequences:Each story gets progressively worse. The first was a simple rumour, but it invites other people to react to it. The consequences became progressively worse for Hannah as each action's consequence left her control. Clay's refusal to take action had a consequence as well. He was the one person who could have helped Hannah out of her feelings of isolation and depression, but he never took the chance. Quotes and significance "Hello, boys and girls. Hannah Baker here. Live and in stereo. I don't believe it. No return engagements. No encore. And this time, absolutely no requests. No, I can't believe it. Hannah Baker killed herself. I hope you're ready, because I'm about to tell you the story of my life. More specifically, why my life ended. And if you're listening to these tapes, you're one of the reasons why. What? No! I'm not saying which tape brings you into the story. But fear not, if you received this lovely little box, you name will pop up . . . I promise. Now, why would a dead girl lie? Hey! That sounds like a joke. Why would a dead girl lie? Answer: Because she can't stand up. Is this some kind of twisted suicide note? Go ahead. Laugh. Oh well. I thought it was funny. Before Hannah died, she recorded a bunch of tapes. Why? The rules are pretty simple. There are only two. Rule number one: You listen. Number two: You pass it on. Hopefully, neither one will be easy for you. "What's that you're playing?"
I scramble for the stereo, hitting several buttons at once. Indirect Characterization Excerpt from "13 Reasons Why": Asher, Jay(Pages 7-8, Cassette 1, Side A)
-2007, Razorbill publishing. Hannah's extremely dark humour, and offhand, cynical remark about her death give us a sense of the depth of her depression at the time the tapes were recorded. Building more suspense... What did Clay do? What led to Hannah's death? Indirect characterization-Hannah blames Clay for her death, he must be a bad person. "...I'm about to tell you the story of my life. More specifically, why my life ended. And if you're listening to these tapes, you're one of the reasons why." "No, I can't believe it. Hannah Baker killed herself" Showing shock and surprise. Finally reveals what happened to Hannah. ". . . I promise. Now, why would a dead girl lie? Hey! That sounds like a joke. Why would a dead girl lie? Answer: Because she can't stand up."
"No return engagements. No encore." "The rules are pretty simple. There are only two. (...) Hopefully, neither one will be easy for you." Demonstrates she wants the tape's recipients to feel guilty for her death. "Before Hannah died, she recorded a bunch of tapes. Why?" Suggests disbelief, and possibly shock. Hannah has just finished explaining, very clearly, why she has created the tapes. Plot The story begins when Clay, one of the main characters, receives a mysterious package at his front door. Once Clay opens the package, he soon comes to find out that there are 7 cassette tapes from Hannah Baker, a girl who committed suicide about 2 weeks before.
On the first tape Hannah explains that each of them is responsible for her death and that they have to pass along the tapes to the next person once they have listened to all 13 reasons (although one person is repeated). Also, before Hannah committed suicide, she left a map for each of the 12 people and they are to follow the map if they please. As the story progresses, we learn why Hannah holds each of them accountable for her suicide.
The novel ends with Clay going to school the next day after mailing the tapes to Jenny.
The narration of the story moves back and forth from Hannah actions to Clays thoughts.