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BGSU Undergrad vocal rep II Lieder

MUSP 3120
by

Liz Pearse

on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of BGSU Undergrad vocal rep II Lieder

GERMAN ART SONG
LIEDER PRIOR TO ROMANTIC LIEDER
-Minnesingers (12-13c)
-volkstümliches Lieder
-Ballad style (from abroad - where?) CATALYSTS
-Expanded ability of piano
-Social climate (who made music)
-New poetry (name poets) GERMAN ROMANTICISM
Philosophical/Artistic/Cultural movement
Problems of trying to unite
Art, Philosophy, Science
Everyday vs. Supernatural
Self vs. Nature
Imagination and Emotion vs. Reason
Focus on the Individual -In visual art: Caspar David Friedrich and others

-In poetry: Nature, night, fantasy, magic...
Heine, Eichendorff, Mörike, Goethe, Chamisso FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN
(1732-1809) Friend of Mozart, teacher of Beethoven
Travels - including London
Earliest song - voice was an optional part...
One of the first to write songs on 3 staves EXAMPLES
"The Spirit's Song"
"My Mother Bids Me Bind my Hair" WOLFGANG
AMADEUS
MOZART
(1756-1791) Wrote songs in Italian, French, and German
Texts...not so interesting, but well set!
from "volkstümliches Lieder" tradition EXAMPLES
"Als Luise die Briefe ihres ungetreuen Liebhabers verbrannte"
"Abendempfindung an Laura"
"Sehnsucht nach dem Frühling" LUDWIG VAN
BEETHOVEN
(1770-1827) Transitional composer - Classical to Romantic
Grandfather/father were singers, father pianist
Learned piano as a child - exploited as a prodigy
(We have studied his history in other classes)
In his songs- use of new piano ability evident
LIEDERKREIS = Garland/Circle of songs
Beethoven's is considered "first"
Connected musical materials
Not perfected, but would be. . . EXAMPLES
"Der Kuss"
"Kennst du das Land"
An die ferne Geliebte JOHANN CARL GOTTFRIED LOEWE
(1796-1869) Contemporary of Schubert, but outlived by many years
Singer, conductor, organist
Preferred ballad writing to Lied. . . Ballad:"Narrative song-poem with rhythm adapted for singing"
(Etymology- "balar" - meaning to dance)
Miniature dramas, high quality text
According to Loewe "They proffer action instead of narration, and approach the higher realm of dramatic art" EXAMPLES
"Edward"
"Erlkönig"
Frauenliebe - "Seit ich ihn gesehen" FRANZ SCHUBERT (1797-1828) "Father, brother first teachers - violin, piano, singing
Talent brought him to attention of Salieri
Studied works of Mozart, Zumsteeg
Johann R. Zumsteeg - Lieder/Ballad writer, conductor
Lasting legacy - elevated the Lied - HOW?
Importance of groupings - opus/cycle comparison EXAMPLES
"Gretchen am Spinnrade"
"Der Musensohn"
"Der Tod und das Mädchen"
"Nacht und Träume"
"An den Mond" x2
"Die junge Nonne"
Die schöne Müllerin - "Wohin?"
Winterreise - "Gute Nacht"
"Letzte Hoffnung"
"Der Leiermann" Personal issues
Relationship issues - disappointed marriage plans? (MAYBE)
Employment sometimes sparse
Talent not always recognized (or compensated)
Relationship to Franz von Schober
Arrested for gathering with friends (during Revolutionary times)
Contracted syphilis "Die Tonkunst begrub hier einen reichen Besitz aber noch viel schönere Hoffnungen" - The art of music buried here a rich possession and yet much finer hopes. - Franz Grillparzer FANNY MENDELSSOHN HENSEL
(1805-1847) FELIX MENDELSSOHN (1809-1847) The siblings studied with the same teacher, received
comparable education in music and composition
Music events held at house - audience included Liszt,
Paganini, Heine (Gounod was a fan of hers)
A gifted and prolific composer - but her father and
brother discouraged her from publishing
Her mother, and her husband, encouraged her!
Wrote ~300 songs, piano solos (including cycle Das Jahr), trios EXAMPLES
"Morgenständchen"
"Die Mainacht"
"Aus meinen Tränen sprießen"
"Schwanenlied"
"Suleika" Raised in a privileged household - wealthy, cultured family
Friendship with Goethe from childhood
As a conductor, instrumental in reviving Bach
Legacy as an orchestral composer, less so for Lieder
Songs characterized by restraint, convention. . .not drama EXAMPLES
"Auf Flügeln des Gesanges"
"Nachtlied"
"Schilflied"
"Neue Liebe"
"Hexenlied" ROBERT SCHUMANN
(1810-1856) CLARA (WIECK) SCHUMANN
(1819-1896) Pianist, began writing prolifically for voice in 1840 (significance)
Several cycles - (name)
Piano works influenced vocal writing - also dramatic use of piano
Use of note-name motives, key relationships within sets
Literary influence - father a bookseller, he was a writer
Tempestuous family life (before Clara)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N0jdC4OgeZ8
RARO (?) EXAMPLES
Dichterliebe - "Im wunderschönen Monat Mai"
"Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen"
"Die alten, bösen Lieder"
Liederkreis - "Mondnacht"
"Die beiden Grenadiere"
Frauenliebe und -leben - "Seit ich ihn gesehen"
"Nun hast du mir" Prodigious pianist - first lady international star
Composed, but social pressure suppressed her
After winning legal battle against father to marry Robert, she continued performing - as a champion of his music EXAMPLES
"Er ist gekommen in Sturm und Regen"
"Lorelei"
"Das Veilchen" FRANZ LISZT (1811-1886) RICHARD
WAGNER
(1813-1883) JOHANNES BRAHMS (1833-1897) Hungarian-born, cosmopolitan pianist
Time spent between Weimar, Budapest, Rome
Secular priest. . .
His daughter Cosima married Richard Wagner
Not as well known for his songs - Schumann inspired him
Songs in German, French, Italian, Russian, Hungarian, English! Categories of "Lisztian melody":
Lyrical (and ornamented) bel canto
declamatory phrases
recit-like or monotone
short fragments
descending intervals EXAMPLES
"Freudvoll und leidvoll"
"Die drei Zigeuner"
"Der König von Thule" Songs not really his medium
Not often performed today (except one set)
Admired the ballads of Loewe - (Flying Dutchman info)
Principals of music-drama influenced later Lieder composers EXAMPLES
"Mignonne"
"Les deux Grenadiers"

Wesendonck Lieder - "Stehe still!"
"Träume" Dichotomies - past/future, strictness/freedom
Schoenberg mentions his influence:
Musical asymmetry, elasticity of form,
systematic construction, richness in economy
Music the focus (sometimes over the text)
Set texts of lesser-known poets
Only one "cycle" - Magelone Lieder
Friend of the Schumanns. . .possibly more to Clara EXAMPLES
"Botschaft"
"Feldeinsamkeit"
Vier ernste Gesänge - "Denn es gehet dem Menschen..." HUGO WOLF (1860-1903) Mostly self-taught composer, played violin/piano
Most songs written between 1888-1891 ~250
5 large groups + ~100 others

Poems for voice and piano
Turning-point composer:
"Wagner of the Lied"
Late-Romantic expression - looking forward EARLY SONG
"Zur Ruh, zur Ruh"
"Mausfallen‑Sprüchlein" MÖRICKE LIEDER - 1888
"Auf ein altes Bild"
"Der Tambour"
"Gesang Weylas" EICHENDORFF LIEDER - 1887-8
"Der Musikant"
"Nachtzauber" GOETHE LIEDER - 1888-89
"Frech und Froh I"
"Beherzigung"
"Kennst du das Land" ITALIENISCHES LIEDERBUCH - 1890-91
"Auch kleine Dinge"
"Wie soll ich fröhlich sein"
"Sterb' ich, so hüllt in blumen meine Glieder"
"Ich hab' in Penna" SPANISCHES LIEDERBUCH - 1889-90
Geistliche - "Nun wandre, Maria"
Weltliche - "Bedeckt mich mit Blumen" RICHARD STRAUSS (1864-1949) GUSTAV MAHLER (1860-1911) Austrian composer/conductor during a very rich
artistic time in Vienna
Jewish - for a "while", his music was banned because of it
Relentlessly pursued perfection (and some may say popularity)
Traveled EU, also conducted at the Metropolitan Opera in NY

Some early songs with piano, but most meant for orchestra/voice Des Knaben Wunderhorn
"Urlicht"
"Das himmlische Leben" Rückert-Lieder
"Ich atmet' einen linden Duft'"
"Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen" Kindertotenlieder (also text by Rückert)
"Nun will die Sonn' so hell aufgeh'n"
"In diesem Wetter" Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen
"Wenn mein Schatz Hochzeit macht" Also composer/conductor, colleague of Mahler's
Best known for his operatic output
Most of his songs were written 1899-1901
Written for his wife, soprano Pauline de Ahna
ORCHESTRAL LIEDER - from Berlioz and Mahler
Involvement with Nazi party...controversial
(had Jewish family to protect!) EXAMPLES - piano original
"Zueignung"
"Die Zeitlose"
"Ständchen"

"Ruhe, meine Seele"
"Cäcilie" EXAMPLES - orchestral
Vier letzte Lieder
"Beim Schlafengehen" ARNOLD SCHOENBERG
(1874-1951) ALBAN BERG (1885-1935) ANTON WEBERN (1883-1945) Vienna-born, studied in Berlin
Contact with Expressionist poets/artists
EXPRESSIONISM
Importance to WAM - abandonment of "tonality"
Fled to Paris in 1933, then to US
Taught at UCLA
Vocal theatre works - Gurrelieder, Erwartung, Die glückliche Hand
Pierrot lunaire (discuss) Brettl-lieder
"Der genügsame Liebhaber"
"Nachtwandler"
"Mahnung"
Das Buch der hängenden Gärten
"Hain in diesen paradiesen"
"Saget mir, auf welchem pfade"
"Als wir hinter..."
Pierrot lunaire
"Der Dandy"
"Eine blasse Waescherin"
"Rote Messe" Composer from childhood - self-taught at first
Worked in government, friends with artists in Vienna
Studied with Schoenberg, early influences Schumann/Debussy
Importance of patterns - constructive rhythms, stacked chords
Large-scale organization - "new wine in old bottles"
OPERA - Wozzeck, Lulu (use of speech, Sprechstimme)
Lived in Vienna ALL his life Jugendlieder collection
"Geliebte schöne"
Der Wein - "Die Seele des Weines"
Sieben frühe Lieder
"Nacht"
"Die Nachtigall"
"Liebesode"
"Sommertage"
Lied der Lulu (After Wedekind...same guy who
wrote Spring Awakening) Learned piano from mother, also cello
Student of Schoenberg, colleague of Berg - adopted 12-tone technique
Works range from late Romantic to free atonality to serial
Killed by an American soldier near the end of WWII
Small, but concentrated output (can fit on just a few CDs)
Nearly a third are songs - he was steward of the Lied
Stravinsky referred to them as "diamonds" 5 Lieder op. 3 - "Dies ist ein Lied für dich allein",
"Im Windesweben", "An Baches Ranft",
"Im Morgentaun", "Kahl reckt der Baum"
4 Lieder op. 13 - "Wiese im Park", "Die Einsame",
"In der Fremde", "Ein Winterabend"
Three songs on poems by Hildegard Jone, op. 25
"Wie bin ich froh!"
"Des Herzens Purpurvogel"
"Sterne, Ihr silbernen Bienen" KURT WEILL (1900-1950) JOSEPH MARX (1882-1964) Early influences - father was a cantor
Pianist/coach in Germany - studied in Berlin
Fled to Paris in 1933 (persecuted...), US in 1935
Artistic partnership with Bertolt Brecht
Wife - singer Lotte Lenya
Became US citizen - worked with American librettists
HYBRID - art/musical theatre composer EXAMPLES
"Und was bekam des Soldaten Weib?" ***
"Surabaya Johnny" from Happy End
"Oh Captain! My Captain!" from Whitman Songs
"My Ship" from Lady in the Dark
"Youkali: Tango Habanera" *** Austrian pianist, musicologist/professor
Taught in Graz, Vienna, published author
Colleagues with many - Puccini, Schoenberg, Shostakovich, Lehar, Respighi. . .
RANGE of texts - German, Chinese, French
(Italienisches Liederbuch settings...)
Most of his 158 songs composed 1906-1912
Straussian-accompaniments "Pierrot Dandy" - Pierrot lunaire setting
"Valse de Chopin" - also Pierrot
"Nocturne" ERICH KORNGOLD
(1897-1957) HANNS EISLER (1898-1962) WOLFGANG RIHM
(b. 1952) Eclectic composer - modern music techniques, emotional expression
Output includes several operas and song cycles

Das Rot - "Hochrot"
"Des Knaben Abendgruß" Student of Schoenberg, worked with Brecht
Lieder, workers' songs, film scores
Moved to US during WWII - persecuted as a communist (moved back to East Germany)
play of tonal/atonal elements - importance of TEXT

"Hotelzimmer 1942"
"Ostersonntag"
"An den kleinen Radioapparat" Recognized as a child prodigy by Mahler and others
Studied with Zemlinsky - a ballet produced at 11
Liked by Strauss, Puccini - a late Romantic composer
Worked as a conductor/music director
Early successes with opera - later film scores
Score to "The Adventures of Robin Hood" won Oscar EXAMPLES
"Nachtwanderer"
"Sommer"
"Come away, Death"
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