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Personality & Attitudes
Transcript of Personality & Attitudes
•demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the theories of personality:
* trait perspectives (the characteristics of extroversion/introversion, neuroticism/stability, Type A/Type B)
*social learning perspectives
•explain the effects of personality profiling on the adoption of balanced, active and healthy lifestyles;
• evaluate critically personality profiling in sport.
•describe and explain the nature of attitudes, inconsistencies and prejudice in sporting situations;
•explain the origins of attitudes, and their influence on performance and lifestyles (including the effects of socialisation);
•describe the components of attitudes (cognitive, affective, behavioural);
•evaluate critically attitudes (and behaviour) in sport and lifestyle choice;
•describe methods of changing attitudes from negative to positive to promote participation in physical activity and a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle;
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the concept of cognitive dissonance to change attitudes.
Theories of personality
Limitations of Personality Profiling
Limitations of personality profiling
• Results are too vague
• Results lack external validity.
• Results do not take into account the environment that the performers are in.
Performers act differently in a game situation.
• Results lack ecological validity (This means the results are not true to life)
• Personality Profiling is too subjective
• The sceptical approach
States that there is no link between personality type and sports performers. E.g. all introverts participate in individual sports; all team players are stable extroverts. This is not true!
• There are too many demand characteristics
This means that the behaviour of the performer changes as they know they are being tested. They may lie or give socially acceptable answers.
A trait is a characteristic of personality which is said to be inherited by a child at birth.
Suggests that behaviour is innate and genetically programmed.
Traits are thought to be stable
Behaviour=function of personality B=F(P)
Evaluation of the Trait approach
Behaviour is not always predictable.
It does not account for the fact that people adapt their behaviour in response to a particular environmental situation.
Does not take in to consideration the environment.
Cattell- can personality be understood by examining just 3 dimensions and 16 personality factors- Cattell’s 16PF test.
Social Learning Theory:
Behaviour=Function of Environment B=F(E)
Suggests that behaviour is learned through interaction with the environment (Bandura).
2 processes involving social learning. Behaviour being imitated through observation. New behaviour being acquired after observation but only when it is endorsed through social reinforcement.
Evaluation of the social learning approach
Does not take into account genetically inherited factors.
Suggests why people become interested in sport.
Suggest why people adopt and healthy, active and balanced lifestyle.
Only provides one explanation.
Gill (2000) suggested that most psychologists use this approach as an explanation of behaviour.
Combines both the trait and social learning theory.
It suggests that personality is modified and behaviour is formed when generically-inherited traits are triggered by an environmental circumstances
Based on the work by Hollander (1967)
Evaluation of the Interactionist approach
Explains twice as much as the social learning theory and the trait theory (Bowers, 1977).
Offers an explanation why the personalities of sport performers can change in different situations.
Not an simple approach
Is used by most psychologists.
How can we measure personality?
POMS (Profile of mood states)
Attempts to understand the relationship between personality and sporting behaviour
Personality can be explained by trait perspectives and by the interactionist approach.
Describe what the term ‘trait perspective’ means.
Type A and Type B personalities form part of the trait approach.
Give two characteristics of Type A personalities. 
The interactionist approach is the most widely accepted theory used to explain behaviour in sport.
Use an example from Physical Education or Sport to explain the interactionist approach. 
4 marks in total
2 marks for 2 of:
4.Used to predict behaviour in a variety of situations/generalised
2 marks for 2 of: Mark first two only
5.Intolerant/need to be in control
6.Prone to high levels of stress/highly strung/tense/energetic/easily aroused
7.Impatient/impulsive/needs to get things done/works fast
3 marks for 3 of Sub max 2 for theory
1.B=f(PE)/Behaviour is a function of personality and environment
2.A combination of Trait and Social learning theories
3. innate personality characteristics form the basis of behaviour
4. but the situation also affects how the performer behaves
5 Relevant example
Components of attitude
e.g. a person knows that jogging 3 times a week is psychologically beneficial
Beliefs & knowledge about the attitude object
Feelings or an emotional response towards attitude
Evaluation of the attitude object is made
e.g. jogging is a pleasurable activity
How a persons responds or behaves towards an attitude object.
e.g. the individual will continue to jog three times in the week.
Critical evaluation of attitudes
“Prejudice is an extreme or strongly held attitude (resistant to change) held prior to direct experience.”
“An antipathy either felt or expressed based on faulty or inflexible generalisations directed towards a certain group or an individual who is part of a group.” (Allport, 1954)
• This is a pre-judgement of a person or a group or situation even before certain behaviour is present
• It is judgement based on small amount of experience and inadequate information
• Some judgement based on information that is incorrect but is passed on to reinforce stereotypes and therefore prejudice
E.g. A female golfer finds it hard to gain full
membership at a golf club
Prejudices are formed by:
• The social learning effect. Learning from significant others
• Wishing to fit in with the social norms of the group
• Bad past experiences which are over valued
• Media pressure
E.g. One member of your group begins to shout abuse at the opposing spectators. You, your friends (and surrounding spectators) join in to fit in with the behaviour of the group.
To overcome prejudice:
As a coach or leader in sport you may prevent or help to dispel prejudice in the following ways:
• Use persuasive communication
• Use cognitive dissonance
• Use role models to re-educate
• Mix abilities within your group
• Use punishment for prejudicial behaviour
• Re-educate with the media
• Reinforce fair behaviour
Attitudes are learned from significant others either explicitly through instruction from teachers, parents or coach, or through social learning. (observation, imitation)
We acquire most of our attitudes from listening to and copying significant others.
In order to become part of a particular group/team it is important to us to hold and demonstrate the normal attitudes of that group, so we therefore acquire attitudes which correspond to that group.
E.g. We all support Man Utd. We all dislike tennis.
Positive attitudes are formed by...
• Belief in exercise
• Enjoyable past experiences in sport
• Being good at a particular sport
• Being excited by the challenge of sport
• Using sport as a stress release
• Having being subjected to the influence of others where participation is the norm
• Encouragement by significant others
• Having opportunities to continue participation
• Positive role models
• Media influences
Negative attitudes are formed by...
•Not believing in the benefits of exercise
•A bad past experience
•A lack of ability
•Fear of taking part or failure
•Suffering stress when taking part
•The influence where not taking part is the norm
•Find PE or sport frustrating or boring
•Lack of encouragement or have been discouraged
•Lack of opportunity to participate
•Disapproval of peers/family
•Negative role models
•Personal constraints (age, gender, race, size)
How would you change the negative attitude below?
Cognitive: - I think football is a rubbish sport for girls
Affective: - I hate football
Behavioural: - I won’t ever try football
4 key elements....
When attitude components conflict dissonance occurs.
By changing an component...
- You could educate the person about the large number of young, physically fit males taking part in the sport and also about the strength, flexibility and stamina it develops.
- You could provide them with positive experiences. Take them to watch a competition or try a fun bounce. During this time they must experience success and their performance must be positively reinforced.
- They might not wish to try trampolining because they are scared. In which case use the tumbling belt and give them lots of praise and reinforcement. You might have to use persuasive communication to alter their behaviour in the fist instance.
Overall attitudes can be changed.
Attitudes in general are poor predictors of behaviour
Dishman (1986) - a persons positive attitudes and beliefs don't always mean that they will commit to an exercise programme.
Fishbein (1974) - When attitudes become more specific they are more likely to predict behaviour.
A more accurate predictor of behaviour occurs when a person makes a clear commitment or intent.
Identify the moods that are high and low in successful and unsuccessful athletes.
THE ICEBERG PROFILE (MORGAN)