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Ch. 13 Emotion
Transcript of Ch. 13 Emotion
Cognition and Emotion
Emotions and The Autonomic Nervous System
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions
Theories of Emotion
Emotions are a mix of
1) physiological activation,
2) expressive behaviors, and
3) conscious experience
Ch. 13 Emotion
Physiological Similarities Among Emotions
Detecting and Computing Emotion
Culture and Emotional Expression
The Effects of Facial Expression
Anger "carries the mind away" (Virgil, 70-19 BC), and "makes any coward brave," (Cato 234-149 BC)
1. Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience
2. Does cognition (thinking) precede emotion (feeling)?
Common Sense View
When you become happy, your heart starts beating faster
William James and Carl Lange proposed an idea that was diametrically opposed the the common-sense view. That physiological activity precedes the emotional experience
William Cannon and Phillip Bard questioned the James-Lange Theory suggesting physiological responses are too similar. They proposed that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body's arousal take place simultaneously
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer (1962) proposed yet another theory which suggests our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors - physical arousal and cognitive label
We know that emotions involve bodily responses. Some of these responses are very noticeable (butterflies in our stomach when fear arises), but others are more difficult to discern (neurons activated in the brain).
During an emotional experience, our autonomic nervous system mobilizes energy in the body that arouses us
Arousal and Performance
Arousal in short spurts in adaptive. We perform better under moderate arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty
Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom are very similar
Excitement and fear involve a similar physiological arousal.
Physical responses, like finger temperature and movement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage, and joy
The amygdala shows differences in activation during emotions of anger and rage
Activity on the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions
What is the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (motion)?
Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking?
Cognition Can Define Emotion
An arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event.
arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which may lead to rioting
A subliminally presented happy face can encourage subjects to drink more than when presented with an angry face (Berridge & Wilkeilman 2003).
Two Routes to Emotion
Zajonc and LeDoux (1984) emphasize that some emotions are immediate, without conscious appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter, and Singer (1998) emphasize that appraisal also determines emotions.
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion
When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004)
Emotions are expressed on the face, by the body, and by the intonation of voice. Is this non-verbal language of emotion universal
Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through non-verbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will "pop out" faster than a single happy face (Fox et al. (2000)
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior
Woman are much better at discerning nonverbal emotions than men. When shown sad, happy, and scary film clips women expressed more emotions than men.
Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving emotions. Even trained professionals like police officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time.
Where is the real smile
Culture and Emotional Expression
When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them (Ekman & Matsumoto 1989)
Emotions are Adaptive
Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence on language. Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestor's survival
If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowing brows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures
Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt, shame, and guilt.
Dimensions of Emotional
People generally divide emotions into two dimensions
Fear can torment us, rob us of sleep, and preoccupy our thinking. However, fear can be adaptive - it makes us run away from danger, it brings us closer as groups, and it protects us from injury and harm
We learn fear in two ways, either through conditioning and/or through observation
The Biology of Fear
Some fears are easier to learn than others. The amygdala in the brain associates emotions like fear with certain situations
Causes of Anger
People generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable.
People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains.
Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.”
Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming.
Cultural and Gender Differences
Boys respond to anger by moving away from the situation, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music.
Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to an intolerance towards immigrants and Muslims.
The expression of anger is more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behavior than in cultures that do promote group behavior.
People who are happy perceive the world as being safer. They are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative,rate job applicants more favorably, and live healthier, energized and more satisfied lives
Feel-good Do-good Phenomenon
When we fee happy we are more willing to help others
Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. Research on new positive psychology is on the rise.
Emotional Ups and Downs
Our positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7 hours after waking up. Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day.
Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to balance. Although grave diseases can bring individuals emotionally down, most people adapt.
Wealth and Well-being
Many people in the West believe that if they were wealthier, they would be happier. However, data suggests that they would only be happy temporarily.
In affluent societies, people with more money are happier than people who struggle for their basic needs.
People in rich countries are happier than people in poor countries.
A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people happy.
However, people who live in poverty or in slums are also satisfied with their life
Does Money Buy Happiness
Wealth is like health: Its utter absence can breed misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness.
Students who value love more than money report higher life satisfaction
Happiness and Prior Experience
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: Like the adaptation to brightness, volume, and touch, people adapt to income levels. “Satisfaction has a short half-life” (Ryan, 1999).
Happiness & Others’ Attainments
Happiness is not only relative to our past, but also to our comparisons with others. Relative Deprivation is the perception that we are relatively worse off than those we compare ourselves with.
Predictors of Happiness
Why are some people generally more happy than others?
Early studies (1927) of spinal cord damage in cats showed normal emotional response
Subsequent studies in injured WWII vets (Hohmann, 1966) showed that upper spinal cord injuries noted differences in emotional response such as dulling of anger and increased emotional response to sad or moving stimuli.