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Personality

Perspectives of the self
by

Torrey Turkovitz

on 6 September 2012

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Transcript of Personality

Perspectives of personality Social-Cognitive Self-esteem Psychoanalytic Trait Humanitstic Defensive Self-Esteem Secure Self-Esteem Self-Serving Bias Reciprocal Influences Id S Ego Conscious Preconscious Unconscious uperego Freud's Iceberg Psychosexual stages Latency Phallic Anal Oral Genital Oedipus Complex-According to Freud, the boy wishes to have his mother and dominate over his father, who he views as a competitor for his mother's affections. The Oedipal complex occurs in the phallic stage of psychosexual development between the ages of three and five. The phallic stage serves as an important point in the formation of sexual identity. During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers (who are responsible for feeding the child), the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation. During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence. During the latent period, the libido interests are suppressed. The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm. The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests. During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. This stage begins during puberty but last throughout the rest of a person's life. Defensive mechanisms Denial- Regression- Repression- Rationalization- Reaction Formation- Displacement- Projection- Displacement involves taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on people or objects that are less threatening. Repression acts to keep information out of conscious awareness. However, these memories don't just disappear; they continue to influence our behavior. Denial is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring. Drug addicts or alcoholics often deny that they have a problem, while victims of traumatic events may deny that the event ever occurred. Projection is a defense mechanism that involves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people. For example, if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you. Rationalization is a defense mechanism that involves explaining an unacceptable behavior or feeling in a rational or logical manner, avoiding the true reasons for the behavior. When presented with a stressful situation, Some people may revert to an earlier stage of psychosexual development. Reaction formation reduces anxiety by taking up the opposite feeling, impulse or behavior. An example of reaction formation would be treating someone you strongly dislike in an excessively friendly manner in order to hide your true feelings. Self-Actualization Self-Concept The Idea of a Self- Concept is the thoughts that arise when asked "Who am I?" Self-esteem is seperated into two distinct groups Much of today's common knowledge of Psychology comes from the Humanistic perspective. It has reached millions of people with it's message of self-empowerment. Factor Analysis- A technique in which clusters of general personality traits are grouped into two dimensions. Extraversion-Intraversion A person's tendency to be involved in social situations, and their openess of emotion. An Extraverted person may find social gatherings enjoyable, whereas an Introverted person would find them tiring and would most likely prefer not to be there. Extraverts often have many aquaintances, but an Introverted person most likely has a few close friends. Stable- Unstable The tendency for one to remain constant in their normal personality. A stable person would be calm and effective, whereas an unstable person would probably be moody and aggressive. The "Big Five" factors Assessing the factors of the big five would often lead to a deep understanding of a person's personality. The result often indicate the same type of personality across all cultures. It is currently the leading approximation tool for psychologists to use. This perspective views behavior as the interaction between people's traits and their social context Most will often accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad. Most people see themselves as better than average. Most adolescents see themselves as unable to be destroyed. Example of a Big 5 test: Our personality shapes how we percieve the world around us. When we expect a certain reaction, we will already act as if that situation is occuring, possibly pushing it into existence. A person's personality is dependent upon our environment and our cognitive thinking style. Connective Perspective I believe that there is an underlying, hidden component of personality that will explain all aspects of it. This component will be the amalgamation of the different perspective's major points, such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs and reciprocal influences. Looking to The Hierarchy of Needs, one can assume that some levels are pre-set by environmental influences, such as age, location, prosperity, and availability of resources. However, You might consciously adust some levels to suit your needs, such as the need for family support during emotional, trying times, but, say one has a pessimistic outlook on life, couldn't one then adjust the levels so as to not favour the self-esteem level as much as, say, the Self-Actualization level? This leads me to say that our personal levels may just be a component of our underlying personality type. Could personality have a "Score", by which one can assume that most individuals of that score fall into the same personality type, much like research indicates intelligence may have? Humans think of themselves are a perfect species. We often underestimate our capacity for error. Abraham Maslow proposed that an individual is motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Basic needs must be met before higher ones can be satisfied. In my theory, the personality of a human could be explained using any of the three perspectives, however, the most important part of it is the power of Reciprocal Influences. Much of what we think is composed of our perception of reality. Our perception of reality is dependent upon the environment in which we develop in, and our cognitive processes. This brings up a very contriversial concept. Reciprocal Influence is the idea that behavior is controlled or determined by the individual, through cognitive processes, and by the environment, through external social stimulus events. The Environment exerts stimuli on us that affects our cognitive thinking process The hierarchy of needs is very indivudual, yet, it follows some cultural norms. For example, In the highly modernized western society, the lower levels are so easily satisfied, most don't even need to think about them. Most of their time goes towards fufilling the higher levels, such as esteem and self-actualization. In other societies, this is not often the case. 3 major points Is it Nature that shapes who we are, or is it the Nurturing we receive? This type of personality score could possibly be compared to the older system of Type A and B personalities, the extroverted personality and the Introverted personality. Defensive self-esteem is a lack of will to thrive in life. It is a pessimistic view on life in general. You always look for the bad in things. This type of self esteem is very fragile and will sustain itself at any cost. Secure self esteem is a positive outlook on life. This type of self esteem is normally very obdurate and will remain constant even through outside influence.
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