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World Cities Urban Regeneration Case Studies
Transcript of World Cities Urban Regeneration Case Studies
Why do we use case studies?
How do we use case studies?
How shouldn’t we use case studies? Human Geography Case Studies Which case studies to are most suitable to help you answer the question well enough to get full marks
You need to have knowledge of a case study to the degree that you take some ‘ownership’ of it What do you need to know? To help us demonstrate our knowledge of geographical concepts and processes through exemplification – to do this we must understand the case study Why do we use case studies? We pick out the detail from the case study needed to help answer the question How do we use case studies? To just regurgitate through waffle everything we know! Think carefully about which information helps to answer the question
When it’s the wrong case study for the set question! How shouldn’t we use a case study? What is the same about the scheme?
What is different about the scheme?
What makes a scheme affective/ inaffective? As we look at the following schemes, decide:
Urban Development Corporations (UDCs)
Set up in the 80s and 90s to regenerate the physical, economic and social aspects of selected inner-city areas with large amounts of derelict land.
Given planning approval powers over and above the local authority.
Encouraged to spend public money on land, infrastructure and marketing to attract private investment.
UDCs made up from local business people who had the power to acquire, reclaim and service land prior to private sector involvement
By 1993, 40% of urban regeneration was through UDCs
Case study – London Docklands Property-led regeneration policies Employment created was inadequate?
Lost huge sums of money through property that was compulsory purchased then fell in value
Because power was above local authority, democratic accountability was removed.
Locals sometimes felt physically and socially excluded by prestigious new housing and office developments. Criticisms of UDCs Urban regeneration policies City Challenge Partnerships
Aims to encourage self-sustaining regeneration in carefully designated areas.
Major switch in funding towards competitive bidding.
To gain funding, imaginative project plus partnership with private sector and local community needed.
Separate schemes working in the same area not allowed – schemes must work together
The partnership then submitted a 5 year plan to central government in competition with other inner city areas.
The most successful schemes combined social aims with economic and environmental outcomes.
By 1993, over 30 City challenge partnerships had been established and 20 or more bids had been unsuccessful. Partnerships between government and the private sector Long term unemployment
Low skills base
Low educational attainment
Growing commercial property vacancy
Deteriorating public sector housing (poor design and inadequate maintenance)
Population = higher than average health care problems, high levels of personal crime, high proportion of single parent families and households dependent on social security. Characteristics of City Challenge areas You need to be able to differentiate between the schemes
Examine the examples on pages 155 and 157. How are these schemes different/similar? Compare and Contrast After
3000 new homes with new shopping areas, roads and community facilities
New roads and community facilities
Traditional patterns (streets, squares, low-rise flats, 2 storey homes)
Crime reduced, more social mix, greatly improved appearance Before
Redevelopment as part of a slum clearance – mainly high rise flats
5500 dwellings 98% council owned
50+% dwellings = bad design, bad construction
Mainly single person households
High number of single parents and people with social difficulties
L.A. ‘dumped’ unfortunate residents Case Study: Hulme City Challenge Partnership (Manchester) 1992
Hume City Challenge, Manchester – part of the slum clearance of the 1960s. Had all the problems associated with this policy.
In 1992, plans were drawn up to build 3,000 new homes, new shopping areas, roads and community facilities Involved = Lots of organisations and agencies involved – inc. The Guinness Trust, Bellway homes and Manchester City Council
Company responsible for Manchester Airport, invested capital in the project
Hulme is good example of public and private sectors working together previous declining area and socially challenged What Actually happened? 1995 50ha land reclaimed
600 new homes built for rent
400+ homes refurbished/ improved
Shopping refurbished -addition of ASDA
new community centre = Zion Centre
Appearance dramatically changed Schemes and Strategies of the 21st Century Holbeck
Urban Village Location
South of Leeds city Centre between major motorway and rail links (easy access)
The village of Holbeck was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries during the industrial revolution – steam powered mills produced machinery, cloth and cast iron. Close to the mills lived hundreds of families in poor conditions in ‘back-to-back terraced housing. Marshalls Mill (1791, Water Lane) and Temple Works (1838, next to Marshalls) still stand in the area. Tower Works built in 1864 located nearby between the Leeds to Liverpool canal and Globe Road Schemes and strategies of the 21st century
Local Case Study: Holbeck Urban Village, Leeds Area of great historical importance ( cradle of industrial rev., architecturally important, conservation area and listed buildings
Potential to develop a sustainable community
Early schemes unsuccessful – special qualities being lost
Principles of a ‘village’ with a mix of living, working and recreational opportunities needed if sustainability was to be achieved
Declared an ‘Urban Village’ by Leeds City Council in 1999
Partnership between Leeds City Council and Yorkshire Forward
Commitment to deliver a sustainable future for HUV to include long term economic growth, social inclusivity and an improved environment Regeneration of Holbeck Improve connectivity between city centre and surrounding communities of Beeston Hill and Holbeck – to create new opportunities for employment, living and leisure (priority neighbourhoods in the Leeds Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy)
To establish a new creative quarter focused on new media and digital technologies
Preserve the area’s unique character – combine new with old
To create a mixed use sustainable community – exemplify best practice in urban regeneration and sustainable development Aims and objectives of the scheme Physical regeneration
Infrastructure – high quality to promote inward investment/non-car based access
Area management – clean, safe and attractive
Social inclusion – attract all social groups
Business support – retain local employment and promote area for new tech business
Skills and training – promote links with jobs at HUV and unemployment in Leeds
Local employment – 5% of new jobs ring-fenced for local people
Environmentally sustainable construction
Minimal Carbon Emissions and solid waste + water conservation and biodiversity improvement
Marketing and communication – raise awareness to poss. Investors
Safety – for residents, workers and visitors
Funding – to promote funding applications and explore new funding Strategic Objectives Expected £800m investment and 5,000 new jobs
Potential to help the city centre grow Southwards
Foster the growth of a new residential and business community
Tower works was due to be restored/redeveloped – development partner has now withdrawn due to recession
Total office space at HUV will be over 110,000 sq. feet
150 residential units and 8,000 sq. ft of retail and leisure space
The Round Foundry has won a number of high profile awards
Round Foundry Media Centre has been sub-divided into 46 office units
Creative and Digital industry contributes £5.14bn per yr – HUV could have a major contribution here to the regional economy
Leeds – 11,500 jobs in the Creative Digital Industries – largest outside London
Take-up of Creative Digital Industries in HUV has increased from 10% on 2003 to 47% in 2007
Foundry Media Centre – 95% occupancy level on av. since opening Success? Look at question 12 on the back of your A3 sheet.
Now remind yourself what the command word ‘Evaluate’ requires:
‘Weigh up several options or arguments and come to a conclusion about their importance/success’
In the answer given by candidate A, highlight where they have evaluated
Finally, look at the case study on page 157 – how much evaluation here? Can you evaluate? Learn what the schemes are known as
For each type, learn one in a different location
Know the differences
Ask yourself if you can evaluate the scheme?
Plan answers for question 12 using Holbeck Urban Village, London Docklands or New Islington And finally…… Recent governments have moved in two directions in their attempts to regenerate and redevelop urban environments in the UK
Prestige project developments (see St. Stephen’s Development, Hull, p168 A2 textbook)
Sustainable communities Schemes and strategies of the 21st Century These allow people to live in an area where there is housing of an appropriate standard to offer a reasonable quality of life with access to a job, education and health care. The initiative began in 2003
Aims of the Sustainable Communities initiative are to ensure that they produce communities that:
have decent homes for sale or rent at a price people can afford
safeguard green and open space
enjoy a well designed, accessible and pleasant living and working environment
are effectively and fairly governed with a strong sense of community Sustainable Communities Sustainable Communities:
Islington An area of Manchester formally known as Cardroom, now renamed as New Islington Millennium Village. It seeks to provide for an appropriate quality of life in inner-city Manchester in the 21st century. Sustainable communities
Case Study 1: New Islington Urban amenities
10 new shops
2 pubs, 2 restaurants, cafes and bards
Metrolink stop in 10 minutes’ walking distance
New bus lines and bus stops
200 on-street and 1200 underground car-parking spaces
A safe Old Mill Street
Parks and Gardens
300 new trees
2 garden islands, and orchard, a beach
Play areas and climbing rocks
Secured courtyard gardens
Private gardens and patios New homes
66 new houses, 200 ground floor flats
500 two and three-story apartments
600 1-and-2 bed apartments
34 urban barns
Refurbishment of Ancoats hospital and Stubbs Mill
New office space
3000 metres of canalside
3 giant canopies
50 moorings for narrow boats and canalside facilities What’s coming to New Islington? What’s coming to New Islington? Community facilities
A primary school and play areas
A health centre with 8 GPs
An angling club and a village hall
A football pitch
Boreholes will provide up to 25 litres per second of naturally filtered water
Central heat and power to generate 600kW of electrical energy and 1,000kW of thermal energy
Recycling collection points that allow occupants to recycle 50% of domestic waste Case Study 2
Thames Gateway “We are one of the major partners leading this massive regeneration project that will bring thousands of new jobs and homes to the Thames Gateway - a 40 mile stretch from London Docklands to Southend in Essex and Sheerness in Kent...” One of four growth areas identified in the UK government’s Sustainable Communities Plan – February 2003 Property –led redevelopment where investment in buildings or transport infrastructure is designed to stimulate an area and attract further development, jobs and residents. Some areas in the gateway are managed by Development Corporations and others by partnership agreements and with many different organisations. The Thames Gateway was the heart of industrial trading for the southern region and the country. Loss of heavy industry and changes in shipping led to the production centre rapidly declining. Major investment and redevelopment is needed in infrastructure and reinstatement of damaged former industrial land. “Through this Delivery Plan we are backing our vision with clear cross-government priorities and funding commitments. The Plan provides a framework for making the best use of public investments, local ownership, big project expertise and private sector entrepreneurship. Its sets out a proposed spending programme for 2008-2011 which includes £500 million for regeneration and £100 million for local transport improvements within a total Government investment commitment of over £9 billion. Three driving points, -strong economy – improvements in quality of life –development of the Gateway as a eco-region.” Canary Wharf
This Global finance centre will be the main economic driver of the Gateway. 90,000 people are already employed and 4 new sites will bring over 100,000 new jobs by 2016. A new commercial and retail scheme is to be designed by Richard Rogers Partnership, bringing a further 10,000 jobs to the area.
This will be a new community on Brownfield sites around Ebbsfleet international station. High speed train link Ebbsfleet to Paris and Brussels, but also to St Pancres and Stratford Olympic site over 500,000m sqyd of new offices which should bring 10,000 new jobs by 2016. In 2007 the government agreed to pay £74 million towards the £166 million programme to invest in roads and other transport measures. This allowed planning permission for 25 ,000 new houses and 36,000 new jobs in Kent Thameside by 2026 Economy and housing
There are four major key economic development projects that will be at the heart of the creation of jobs and wealth that the gateway hopes to encourage. They will come from national government sources and show many aspects of property led development
The Olympics and Stratford City
Regeneration of the area at the heart of the 2012 Olympics bid. The Olympic park is being designed as a sustainable showpiece area for the whole gateway. The London Development Agency has set up an employment and skills action plan designed to get 70 000 Londoners into work through the games.
Regeneration of a 1500 acre former oil refinery site to provide the largest deep water port in Europe. It will be able to handle the largest container ships and will link to road, rail and sea connection through one of the biggest logistic parks in Europe. The owners will invest £15 billion in the port to create 14,000 new jobs by 2025. Ol