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Origin of Proto Indo European
Transcript of Origin of Proto Indo European
and its origins
Origin of Proto-Indo-European
Start of Proto-Germanic
The start of Proto-Germanic
is traced to the northern european plain and southern Scandinavia
and is classified as
starting when the voiceless stops became voiceless fricatives,
the voiced stops lost their
voice and aspirated voiced
stops became voiced fricatives.
These changes became known
as Grimm's Law.
The Reatic alphabet, from the Reatic language in the eastern alps and northern Italy, is the first alphabet borrowed by germanic tribes.
Germanic names have been mentioned from Julius Caesar's book De Bello Gallico in the first century BCE and Tacitus gave the first name to Germanic tribes in 98 AD.
The Reatic alphabet was replaced by the runic alphabet for use in early German as it suited their sounds much better. The writing was angular due to writing on rocks, wood, and beech bark.
Runes lasted much longer in Scandinavia than in the European Plain. Runes are thought to be partly ancestral to Scandinavia.
The Gothic language, now extinct, was the East German Language. Gothic alphabet was based upon Greek rather than runes. Records exist from the 4th century AD. The only known literary evidence is a 4th century translation of a Greek Bible into Gothic. Mostly New Testament. Regarded as a historical non-entity by the 8th century. Small pockets may have survived. Possible letter containing Gothic was found from the 16th century in Crimea.
The North Germanic languages started up in Scandinavia. Late rune inscriptions show changes in Old Norse around the 9th century. Old Norse eventually split into Swedish, Danish (east Norse), Norwegian, and Icelandic (west Norse). Norn did exist, but is now extinct. A lot of literature exists from North Germanic languages, most of which is Icelandic. Their influence was spread over a greater area by the viking raiders that spoke it.
West German languages originated along the North Sea area. Made of Old English, Old Saxon, and Old Frisian.
Old English - 500 A.D.
Literature compares to Old Norse.
Old Saxon - 9th Century A.D.
"Heliand" - German style epic poem based on the New Testament.
Old Dutch from 10th century A.D.
Old Frisian - closer to Old English
13th century AD.
Old High German - 8th centruy A.D.
Changes by High Middle Ages
Today, there is a wide variety of Germanic Languages spoken in the world. There is
-English -Scots -Frisian
-German -German Dialects -Dutch
-Danish -Danish Dialects -Afrikaans
-Faroese -Swedish -Norwegian -Icelandic
Even though there are many German Languages spoken today, there are still several that have become extinct.
-Norn -Guntish -Gothic
-Vandalic and Burgundian (These last two are languages spoken by Germanic tribes.)
Bower, Bruce. "New roots for a big language family: Indo-European tongues are traced back to ancient Turkey." Science News 22 Sept. 2012: 10. Student Resources In Context. Web. 30 Aug. 2013.
"History of the Germanic Languages." History of the Germanic Languages. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2013.
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ /viewer.aspx?path=3%2F33%2F&name=Duenos inscription.jpg
Simmons, Austin, and Jonathan Slocum. Indo-European Languages: Germanic Family. N.p., 22 Feb. 2013. Web. 26 Aug. 2013
-Origin of Language
-Spread of Language
-Modern vs. Extinct