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AP Biology Labs 5-8
Transcript of AP Biology Labs 5-8
and number of bubbles of gas
produced per minute on y axis Optimum temperature is when the most amount
of bubbles of gas is being produced per minute.
In this case, the temperature is 30 C. Enzymes attach to substrates and work at an
optimum rate when there is an abundant
amount of substrate to work with.
When the amount of substrate decreases
the reaction slows. Design an Experiment:
Place yeast cells in test tubes of sugar solutions with varying pH. Use an apparatus that can detect the bubbles of gas released by yeast cells. Record how many bubbles are detected at a constant temperature for 10 minutes. More bubbles will be produced at the optimum pH for yeast cells. AP Bio Free Response 2009 #1 Form B
Lab 6 Molecular Biology Plasmids can be genetically modified by
genetic engineering. Plasmids are introduced to competent cells that are modified to take in DNA. Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA so the "sticky ends" can attach to the plasmid. Procedure 1. Both the gene of interest and the plasmid are cute by the same restriction enzyme.
2. DNA ligase is used to seal the sticky ends together.
3. The recipient cells are transformed with the engineered plasmid.
4. Colonies carrying the plasmid are isolated.
To see if the procedure has been successful, use a reporter gene like GFP (green fluorescent protein). Transformed cells will glow. AP Bio Free Response 2010 #3 Lab 7 Genetics of Organsims AP Bio Free Response 2008 #3 Form B Cross I: Has a 3:1 ratio. Bronze eyes must be dominant
and red eyes must be recessive. The offspring of F1 must of had either a genotype of BB or Bb in order to reach the 3:1 ratio in the F2 generation.
Cross 2: The same can be said for this cross except the dominant gene must be stunted wings and the recessive gene must be normal wings. Cross 3: Linked Genes- The most dominant traits when paired together were represented the most. The flies represented their parents phenotypes the most. No mutation: No new alleles in the population
No gene flow: No change to the gene pool (either an addition or a substraction) Lab 8 Population Genetics and Evolution p2 +2pq+q2=1
p2 (AA)= .36
q2 (aa)= .16
Dominant Phenotype= .84 Conditions required for a population
to remain at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium:
A large population
No change in allelic frequency due to mutation
No immigration or emigration
No natural selection If a there was a limited supply of food where a population of animals lived, and a few migrated to a new area, the remaining animals would have only a part of what was their gene pool as before. No migration would not be met.