Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
AP EURO TIMELINE
Transcript of AP EURO TIMELINE
of Lodi was a peace
various City States in Italy 1469: Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Humanist whose wrote
"The Prince" which stressed
the importance of a
monarchical ruler who
held absolute control. Grandson of Medici, ruler Florence in almost totalitarian fashion during the last quarter of the 15th century. 1490: Ludovico il Moro
(1494) Duke of Milan from 1484 until his death Britain H.R.E (Aus/Ger) Italy France Spain Poland AP EURO TIMELINE 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 Italian Renaissance Begins 1378: Ciomi Revolt 1430: Cosimo de Medici (1434-1464) Wealthy Politician
who returned Florence
back to stability 1450: Treaty of Lodi (1454) 1470: Lorenzo the Magnificent
(1469-1492) 1500: High Renaissance Rise of Visual Arts in the Italian renaissance Rise of Humanism (Petrarch)
A melancholy genius who excelled in arts and craft. Created the sculpture of David which is the best example of humanistic characteristic Michelangelo Raphael Man of great sensitivity and kindness who was loved by his contemporaries. Painted the school of Athens Leonardo Da Vinci One of the greatest painters of all time who honed great skills through complex facial features as seen in his Mona Lisa 1520: Reformation/Religious Wars/
Commercial Revolution Begins Castiglione Author of the book of Cortiers Ignatius of Loyola Spanish knight from a noble family, who founded the Jesuits 1610: Thirty Years War Florentine scientist who founded the telescope and was arrested for presenting revolutionary scientific theories. Galileo 1648: END OF ITALY 1356: Golden Bull Agreement made between the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and the major German territory. Established seven major electoral colleges. 1370- The Great Scism
(1378-1417) A split between the the catholic church 1440: German Humanism "Founded" by Rudolf Agricola (1443-1485), who is the father of northern humanism Emperor Maximillian I
(1493-1519) Placed an imperial ban to enforce internal peace between Emperor and German Princes 1450: Gutenberg Printing Press Led to spread of education and religion as bibles and textbooks production became rapid 1510: Martin Luther
(1483-1546) Martin Luther, who is a seminal figure of the Protestant Reformation proposes his idea “Justification by faith alone” (95 theses) 1520: Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Zwingli help spread protestant idea to Switzerland. He banned music and relics from service Charles V (r. 1519-1556) Elected to Holy Roman King. 1530: Diet of Worms Condemned Luther. Luther than was excommunicated. So he hides in a secluded castle to translate New Testament into German Edict of Worms The Edict essentially granted sovereignty in religious matters, allowing the Reformation to take root Peasants Revolt Protestant movement grows Augsburg Confession Lutheran reaction to Charles' order to revert to Catholicism. Peace of Augsburg
(1555) Peace guarantees religious freedom based on cuius region, cuius religio. John Calvin An influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Johannes Kepler Wrote the New Astronomy 1610: Palatinate Calvinism was the official religion of Palatinate. Bohemian Period Danish Period Swedish Period Swedish-French Period Defenestration of
Prague (1618) Protestant nobles reacted to Ferdinand II resolving to reassert Catholicism by throwing Ferdinand's regents out the window. Edict of Restitution (1629) Ferdinand reasserts Catholic safeguards of the Peace of Augsburg and renounces illegality of Calvinism. Peace Of Prague (1635) German Protestant states reach compromise with Ferdinand but SWE refuses to join as it enjoyed the continued support of FRA and NED Treaty of Westphalia (1848) Treaty stripped the Edict of Restitution and reasserted the Peace of Augsburg as well as recognize SWI, NED and Calvinism. 1710: Pragmatic Sanction (1713) Charles had no male heirs and tried to ensure the approval of his daughter, Maria Theresa, coming to the throne. War of Austrian Succession
(1740-1748) Maria Theresa faced internal struggles as well as int'l confrontation (esp. against Fred the Great) but eventually came to power League of Venice Consisted of Aragon, H.R.E, Papal States, as well as Milan (Ludovico) who recognized his faults. Ferdinand and Isabella (1474-1516) They rarely called the Cortes and secured Spanish borders. Economic growth led to overseas expansion. Jews were exiled in 1492 and the Spanish Inquisition became the safeguards of Catholicism 1560: Saavedra Wrote Don Quixote. Juxtaposes religious idealism with realism and portrays both as necessities for happy life. 1610: Thirty Years War 1450: War of Roses Conflict between two rivaling Royal families, the House of York and the House of Lancaster. Lead to the establishment of the Tudor family as monarchs. 1510: Henry VIII (1509 - 1547) First of the new Tudor dynasty. Settles the conflicting houses by marrying the Daughter of Edward IV (a York). Shapes a monarchy during his rule. 1520: Reformation Parliament
(1529-1536) Placed major legislation which leads to the English Revolution 1550: Peace of Augsburg Check Peace of Augsburg Explanation in H.R.E timeline 1560: Mary I (1553-1558) Marries Spanish Prince Philip II of Spain to Catholicize England. Exiled thousands of Protestants. 1570: Elizabeth I (1558-1603) Half Sister of Mary I, had a long protestant reign without a Heir. Last of the Tudor monarch.
Mary Queen of Scots- Executed by Elizabeth in an attempt to overthrow England with Spanish king Philip II 1590: Spanish Armada Was the mightiest naval force of the world yet England was able to defeat them with smaller, swifter ships Francis Bacon Father of Empiricism. Favored induction (evident -> conclusion). Supported innovation and change, and linked progress with science and government. 1610: James I (1603- 1625) First Stuart to rule England. Had major problems with the parliament and with the puritans. 1620: Charles I (1625-1649) Continues to have problems with Parliament therefore he attempts to rule without one Petition of Right Limited the power of Charles I
- No tax without consent to Parliament
- No military intervention during the time of peace
- No martial law during the time of peace
- No imprisonment without a charge Ship Money Tax that Charles tried to levy without the consent to parliament Impositions New set of royal income to keep up with royal expenditure and reduce royal tax 1640: Short Parliament Refused to consider war funds unless King would redress political and religious grievances Long Parliament Demands that Charles finally Agreed to
- Regular meetings (at least once in 3 yrs.)
- Trialed some of king's advisers
- Abolished special courts
- No taxation without consent English Civil War (1641) Charles raised an army against the Parliament Oliver Cromwell (1649-1660) Led to the Victory of the Parliament, Ruler of England during the time of the Interregnum. Sought Peace, Justice and religious freedom. Eventually crowned himself, "Lord Protector" 1660: Charles II (1660-1685) The Merry Monarch who was secretly catholic. Clarendon Code Series of laws that excluded the Roman Catholics Test Act Required all office holders to be Anglican Habeas Corpus Series of laws regarding imprisonment and arrest 1670: Newton British scientist who defined the laws of motion. Wrote “Principia” Treaty of Dover (1672) Secret Treaty that stated that England will assist France in the invasion of the Dutch Republic James II (1685-1688) Anglican ruler that converted to Catholicism. He was disliked by parliament and waited for his daughter Mary (a protestant) to rule Glorious Revolution (1688) Overthrew King James II. King James flees England Bill of Rights (1688) Limited the power of Monarchs and guaranteed civil liberty William and Mary (1689-1702) Brang back Liberty to England Toleration Act (1689) Allowed freedom of worship to nonconformists Act of Settlement(1701) Secured Protestant succession to the throne, and strengthened the guarantees for ensuring parliamentary system of government. 1700: Great Northern War War between Sweden’s Charles XII and Russia’s Peter the Great 1710: Whigs Vs Tories Rivaling political groups. Start of conflict between absolutism and constitutional monarchism in England 1720: Robert Walpole (1721-1742) Regarded as the First prime minister of England Agricultural Revolution
Begins Jethro Tull (1674~1741) Usages of iron plows Charles Turnip (1674~1738) Advocated Crop rotations and fertilization
techniques Robert Bakewell (1725~1795) Pioneered new methods of animal breeding 1810: Corn Laws Trade law that was designed to protect England against competition from less expensive foreign imports Peterloo Massacre Crowd of 60,000–80,000 gather to demand the reform of parliamentary representation. Daniel O'Connell ended Anglican monopoly on politics by steering this act. Ireland was mainly Catholic Catholic Emancipation Act 1710: Liberum Veto The Polish nobles generally distrusted the monarch and therefore elected foreign monarchs. As a result, POL became a tool for foreign powers. Also, the legislative sejm was very ineffective because the liberum veto allowed a signe person to disband and "explode the diet." Partitions of Poland (1772, 1793, 1795) RUS and AUT ambitions collided in Danube. RUS asked for PRUS's help against the OTT, and Frederick proposed a prevention of conflict among major powers. RUS gave up Danube in exchange for a large portion of Eastern POL. PRUS received part of POL that would connect it's eastern andw estern regions, and AUT acquired Galicia. Subsequent partitions wiped a helpless POL completely off the map. Organic Statuate Suppressed Polish revolt and declared the statute which claimed POL as an integral part of the empire. by Naoto Ido
Robert Fujita Charles V (1364-1380) Called the Wise. Was the monarch for House of Valois Christian de Pizan Considered Europe's first female professional writer. Was the physician for Charles V Charles VII (1422-1461) Called the Victorious or the Well Served. Was a monarch of the House of Valois Joan of Arc (1412-1431) Instrumental figure in beating England in 1420s. Was tried and executed in 1431. Gutenburg Invented movable type in Mainz and Stratsbourg between 1436-1440. Printing Press Gutenburg's invention coincided with the invention of cheap paper . Books were mass produced, kings used print for propaganda, clergymen mass produced indulgences, and a new literate class began to develop. Louis XI (1461-1483) Doubled the size of France, but his successors failed to transform France into a strong nation. Charles VIII (1483-1498) Called the Affable. Was a monarch of the House of Valois. Devoted France’s resources to building a large army Louis XII (1462-1515) Devoted France’s resources to building a large army Francis I (1515-1547) Proposed the Concordat of Bologna on 1516, gave the king enormous power over the church’s wealth Henry II (1547-1559) Tried to suppress the Protestant Hugenouts in France Italian War (1551~1559) War proposed by Henry II against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and putting France on Dominant European power. Treaty of Cateau(1559) Cambresis put an end to the ongoing war between Spain and France over the control of Italy . France gave up their territorial power, leaving Spain to rule over italy Francis II (1559-1560) Ascended to king after his father’s accidental death
Ruled Scotland through marrying Mary Queen of Scots. Prince of Conde The Bourbons and M-Cs sympathized with the Huguenots. Prince of Conde led this faction. Charles IX Was a monarch of House of Valois. Ascended to the throne because brother Francis II died. January Edict (1562) Royal Decree that gave French Huguenots the right to preach St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Organized by Charles IX and Cathrine de’ Medici,Murdered 5,000 to 30,000 huguenots. Henry III (1574-1589) Abandoned his rule over both Poland and Lithuania to become King of France Henry IV of Navarre
(1589-1610) Introduced Absolutism to France and switched to Catholicism
Previous leader of Protestants, but ruled as a politique and claimed a tolerant Catholic France. Duke of Sully Economic adviser who built up bureaucracy in France Edict of Nantes Placed Catholicism as the main religion of France but allowed Protestants freedom of worship Louis XIII (1610-1643) Bourbon monarch who ruled France. Marie de Medici (1616) Acted as Louis XIII’s regent until being exiled due to ceaseless political intrigues and her italian favorites Cardinal Richelieu Louis's advisor. Skillfully allied with Gustavus Adolphus while maintaining relations with Spain, expanding French territory. Used intendants to subject the nobles to closer scrutiny. Curtailed the Edict of Nantes. raison d’etat Propaganda and press were used to indoctrinate the meaning of "reason of state." Louis XIV also used this Louis XIV (1643~1715) Created a strong centralized government system “l’etat c’est moi”. Believed in the Divine Rights Theory. Louis XIV took over in 1661 when Mazarin died. Cardinal Mazarin Took over and continued Richelieu's absolute monarchy. Was arrested imprisoned for treason in 1649, released and exiled from France along with Louis XIV in 1651 Fronde (1649~1652) Series of rebellions where segments of the nobility and townspeople rejected absolute monarchy Louis claimed his right to Holland as his wife's dowry renouncing her claim to HOL had not been paid. ENG/SWE/HOL form Triple Alliance and force Louis to sign the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. War of Devolution (1667-1668) Nine Years’ War (1688) War against England and France over the control of North America Peace of Nijimwegen Triple Alliance collapses after Treaty of Dover. Louis than attacks HOL again, but is stopped by William of Orange. Signs Peace of Nijmwegen. Louis banned Huguenots from government, so he used selective discrimination, and revoked the Edict of Nantes. Despite opposition and guerilla warfare, Louis has considered it as his most pious act. Revocation of Edict of Nantes The Peace of Ryswick Was signed after France and England were both exhausted of armies and supplies, putting an end to the Nine Years War. War Of Spanish
Succession (1701) France takes interest in the Habsburg territory. After the death of Charles II and a failed negotiations of preserving power balance in France,plus Louis’ declaration of war on Spanish American ships, A grand alliance was formed to counter Louis. Louis XV (1710-1774) A Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France. He succeeded his great-grandfather at the age of five, though Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, his first cousin twice removed, and maternal great uncle, served as Regent of the kingdom until Louis's majority in 1723. Cardinal de Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took over control of the Kingdom. Duke of Orleans Became regent during Louis XV’s rule. Due to his gambling habit, placed the John’s Law to manage France’s Finances Mississippi Bubble Disastrous failure of the John’s Law which led to the collapse of the company in New Biloxi,Mississipi Cardinal Fluery Tutor and chief minister of Louis from 1726, 1723. Gave france a time of peace and prosperity but was unable to solve the financial crisis Seven Years’ War
(1756-1763) Frederick II of Austria opens hostility by invading Saxony. France joins forces with Austria Sweden and Russia to destroy Prussian power. Jean-Jacques Rousseau Wrote Emile. Advocated the need to let children be free. Parents should only protect against dangers. Physical differences would naturally lead to Separate Spheres The Treaty of
Hubertsburg (1763) Signed at Hubertusburg by Prussia, Austria, and Saxony. Together with the Treaty of Paris, it marked the end of the French and Indian War and of the Seven Years' War. The treaty ended the continental conflict with no significant changes in prewar borders. Silesia remained Prussian, and Prussia clearly stood among the ranks of the great powers. The French Revolution Louis XVI (1774-1791) Claimed that French debt was not as bad as first anticipated, but then was forced out of office after claiming that a large portion of expenditures was directed to pensions for nobles. Necker also made it difficult for Louis to claim a need to raise new taxes, benefitting nobles. Jacques Necker Calonne proposes drastic economic reforms. Assembly of Notables rejects Calonne's ideas and claims that only the Estates General has the power to consent new taxes. Charles Alexandre
de Calonne Netherlands Prussia Kempis Russia Wrote the Imitation of Christ, summarizing the philosophy of the Brothers. Erasmus Prince of the humanists, who took advantage of the printing press. Called for educational and religious reform; his work inspired Protestant and Catholic reformers. Margaret of Parma (1560) Philip II returns to Spain and leaves half-sister Margaret in charge. Granvelle (1564) He was handpicked by Philip II to head the council in Netherlands. His plans of Catholic arousal failed as William of Orange and Count of Egmont work together to secure Granvelle's departure. Duke of Alba Headed a special Council of Troubles/Council of Blood to vigorously suppress opposition. Enacted "tenth penny" tax. William of Orange forms the Union of Brussels. Alba cedes power after early losses. Frederick William, The Great Elector (1640-1688) Pacification of Ghent aka The Spanish Fury. Death of Requesens leaves unpaid Spanish mercenaries wreaking havoc in Netherlands. Catholic South and Calvinist Northjoin to force Don John to sign the humiliating Perpetual Edict. Union of Utrecht Spanish determination helps break Netherlands into the Union of Arras in the North and Utrecht in the South. Netherlands (north) eventually recognized in 1648. Believed in deduction. (premise -> conclusion). Eventually deduction lost out to Bacon's induction. René Descartes William III (r.1672-1702) Became King of England. After his death, the bobles prevented a new strong stadholder from rising. Economic dominance also began to weaken. Amsterdam Bourse The most advanced financial system at the time allowing NED to stay on the map in the 1700s Dutch EIC Colonial possession of Indonesia was key to NED's economic success.
-Estate Generals called upon by the king to settle financial problems July 1789 Tennis Court Oath An Oath from the National Assembly to sit down until France was granted a constitution. Attack on Bastille Presence of royal troops in Paris caused anxiety. 800 urban people marched to the Bastille, where the governor fired and killed 98 people.An enraged crowd stormed the fortress and invited Marquis de Lafayette to command the National Guard. Lafayette gave the Guard red and blue stripes, breaking with the king's white stripes. August 1798 France Spain Netherlands Prussia Russia Great Fear Due to starvation, rising bread prices and a drastically cold winter, people started a riot in the search of food. Destroyed Chateaux and burned feudal tax documents Declaration of the
Rights of Man and Citizens Declares man’s freedom of speech, religion and assembly March on Versailles 7000 Partisan women marched to the Versailles with pikes, swords and guns demanding Louis and his family return to Paris Constitution of 1791 Established a constitutional monarchy, with the monarch given a veto that could delay, but not halt, legislation. Active citizens (paid annual taxes) would vote on electors, who would vote on members of legislature. The balance of power shifted from nobles to landowners.The legislation could also declare war. The September Massacre (1792) The Legislative Assembly loses power. Revolutionary riot kills 1400 nobles, priests and ordinary people National Convention New government consisting of Girondists and radical Jacobins (Mountains) Louis XVI Convicted He was executed. Than Robespierre and his Committee of Public Safety started the Reign of Terror. Killed all who did not agree with him or Republic of Virtue (40000 killed) Believed he had created a "republic of virtue" that sacrificed personal rights for the good of the state. He repressed women's rights by citing Rousseau's Separate Spheres and also excluded them from the army and politics. Robespierre's Convenvion also tried to de-Christianize France but this aroused much opposition as Robespierre had personally feared. Maximilien de Robespierre Thermidorean Reaction The revolution began to temper as Girondists were allowed back, CPS was weakened, Law of 22 Prairial repealed, and the Paris Commune closed. A reactionary white terror executed former terrorists Directory Entrance to politics was throroughly based on property. Also, peasants in France were given a base to start with having never paid compensation for their new lands. Fearing a loss of popular vote, it established the rule of 2/3 which meant that at least 2/3 of the old members would be represented. Without popular support, the Directory came to depend more on Napoleon's army than on the constitution. coup d'etat Backed by Napoleon, anti-monarchists prevented a majority for the constitutional monarchists in the 1797 Elections. Napoleon Bonaparte A French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe. He was Napoleon I, and was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. Concordat of 1801 Ended quarrels with Roman Catholic Church. Refractory clergymen were forced to resign. The state paid and chose the bishops as well as one priest in each parish. Napoleonic Code Napoleon confirmed consul for life. Napoleonic Code safeguarded all forms of property and overthrew privileges based on birth for one based on merit.Primogeniture remained abolished, women's organizations remained forbidden, workers had few rights. The universality of the code ended opportunities to take advantage of any regional discrepancies. Amiens (1802) Defeats AUT again. RUS leaves coalition; GBR, left alone, signs a treaty and brings peace to Europe. Continental System Napoleon could not beat GBR militarily so resorted to an economic warfare. However, British trade with the New World sustained it. Napoleon rejected advice to turn his empire into a free-trade zone because he wanted to favor France. As a result, smuggling was common and helped bring about his downfall in Spain and Russia. Elba Was the place Napolean was exiled in. Congress of Vienna Kingdom of Netherlands was established; PRUS was given important territories; AUT gained control of northern ITA; GER was left untouched. FRA was even allowed to participate, with Talleyland taking an active role in the Polish-Saxon Question. Hundred Days (1815) Napoleon escapes to FRA and returns to power with popular backing. He promises a liberal constitution and peace. Battle of Waterloo Napoleon marched his army towards Russia. Burned many of Russia's cities but by the time they reached Moscow, the army was defeated by Russian forces due to cold and starvation. Lost 70000men, Defeat of Napoleon Six Acts Forbade large unauthorized meetings, raised fines for libel, speedy trials, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited training armed groups, and allowed home searches. Charles X (1824) Rules France. Resented by the urban workers and Bourgeoisie because of his placement of the Chamber of Deputies July Revolution The Four Ordinances prompted reaction. The king was not able to gain control of Paris and fled.The Bourbon dynasty ended, and Louis Philippe (Orleans) became king. Charles capitalizes on victory in Algeria to restrict press, dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, restrict franchise, and call for new elections. Four Ordinances A member of the Hohenzollern family. Known as the Great Elector for his military and political skills. A Calvinist, he viewed trade as extremely important and set Prussia in place to become a kingdom under his son, Frederick William I Louis Philippe Louis Philippe was politically liberal, replacing the white Bourbon flag with the tri-color flag of the revolution. He abolished censorship. Socially, he was conservative. Laissez faire economics was preferred. Hohenzollerns Junkers Prussian nobility Ruled the German territory of Brandenburg
since 1417 Boyars Russian Nobility Streltsy Russian Miliatary (Moscow guards) Peter I and Ivan IV Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Prussia loses part of Pomerania to Sweden Peter, like Louis XIV, learned from his early reign violences and increased his military power, ruthlessly conscripting 300,000 men. He also gradually stopped giving boyar status and skillfully balanced one group of nobles against another. He adopted Swedish colleges, a system operating under written instructions rather than through a dept. head. Lastly, he was fascinated by Western Europe and made several disguised visits. He is known for St. Petersburg and Europeanization of Russia. Despite all this, Peter died without an heir, transferring much power back to the nobles. In short, he laid the foundations for a modern Russia but failed to make it stable. Frederick I (1688-1713) Aleksei Peter's son, who was involved in several plots against Peter along with Charles VI. Died under mysterious circumstances in 1718. Son of Great Elector who
patronized in the arts Peace of Nystad (1721) Along with St. Petersburg, Peter created a Russian navy, which was instrumental in the Great Northern War. The Peace secured war-water ports and a permanent influence in Europe for Russia War of Spanish Succession (1701) Frederick I disposes his well trained
army to the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor
in exchange for the title “King of Prussia” Table of Ranks (1722) Equated a person's social position with his rank in the bureaucracy, not lineage. Hoped to make nobles serve the state. Frederick William I (1713-1740) Lone ruler who organized bureaucracy and military of Prussia. Strengthened the army but avoided conflict Catherine II the Great (r.1762-1796) Frederick II The Great (1740-1786) 1740s/50s: Catherine learned to survive at the courth of Elizabeth and learned of the need to forge political support. She befriended the Enlightenment, whose writers in return wrote favorably about her. She increased her stability by siding with the nobles in the Charter to the Nobility. Trade and urban centers developed. The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji proved her military success by annexing Crimea and becoming protector of the Russian Orthodox Church. - Focused on beautifying Prussia
- Build art museums, schools and churches.
- Had no successor War of the Austrian Succession (1740) Pugachev Rebellion (1774-1775) Major peasant rebellion. After the beginning of the French Rev, Catherine increasingly turned to censorship and secret police. Frederick II seized Austrian provinces in Germany and shattered the Pragmatic Sanction Treaty of Tilst (1807) Alexander I confirms French gains, and reduces PRUS to half its size but saves it from complete extinction. Treaty of Tilst (1807) Invasion of Russia (1810-1812) Prussia’s territory was reduced to half
its size after Napoleon’s resistance
crushed the Prussian Army. Choked by the Continental System and receiving no help from France in OTT, RUS withdrew from the system and prepared for war. RUS used a scorched-earth policy and Napoleon could not win decisively. The two sides confronted each other in Moscow, and Napoleon still failed to win decisively. With winter approaching, Napoleon tried to make peace but Alexander refused. Napoleon eventually returned to FRA, leaving his massive army to struggle back. Alexander I (r.1801-1825) Congress of Vienna (1815) Nicholas I (1825-1855) Prussia forms a quadruple alliance with Austria Russia and England. Prussia agrees to give Russia Poland in return of Saxony Austro-Prussian war(1866) Constantine When Alexander I died, Constantine and Nicholas offered the throne to each other. Eventually, Nicholas I took it after news of a potential coup. Prussia aligns with part of Germany and Italy against Austria. Prussia gains dominance over the German states. Decembrist Revolt (1825) Nicholas suppressed this uprising and began to investigate secret army societies. Nicholas was largely afraid of change and widely used censorship and the secret police. Crimea War (1844-1845) OTT yield to FR pressures and assign certain holy places to Roman Catholics. This angers Orthodox RUS. FRA/GBR declare war on RUS in the Mediterranean. AUT had its own interests and remained neutral. RUS falls to FR/GBR. This was also the first war to be covered by photographers.