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Amelia Eskridge

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of OWNIT

17th - 18th Century Medicine, Science and Transportation • In the middle ages, medicine was in a sense dangerous to people
• Many people back then believed people’s sickness came from bad odors & bad hygiene (seen as sins from their soul)
• Used many things for medicine such as
Sassafras, leeches, barks, mud, figs, dandelions, herbs
Also cast a lot of spells
• In Middle Ages, Black Death was killing about 1/3 population
• Medicine was very limited
Leeches very popular to be used when trying to get excess blood out of the body
Blood letting was very popular when treating many diseases because diseases were beleved to be formed by a large amount of blood in the body Medicine Random Facts •Mixed cocaine with other antibiotics
•Vacines against cowpox
•Life expectancy was under 52
•Many barbers also did surgery which made surgery facilities in barber shops. •Snail water, opium, herbs, honey, berries for remidies
•Olive oil for burns Drugs and Medicine: Technology: Stethoscope, Thermometer, Amputation Saws Procedures: •Inoculation-introducing microorganisms in living organism to help antibodies - All done without amnesia > 1678 doctors found cure for smallpoz & measles, but didn’t use cure until 1721
> by the 1700s they didn’t use cocaine as much as they used plants Advancements Andrew Tiu Transportation Trenaty Cooper Transportation in the 1600's - During the 17th century, there was some improvement in the pavement of roads
- Most common mode of transportation was simple and inexpensive walking
- Stagecoaches are available for hire in London starting from 1605 not that popular, always the fear of highwaymen and expensive
The most common design of stagecoach, the Berlin was developed in Germany in about 1670
Seats four people, shallow “U” shape, doors on each sides, drawn by two of four horses
Starting in 1680, glass windows kept out the outside and springs that absorbed force from bumps of the road
- Late 17th century, the gig vehicle w/ one pair of wheels drawn by a single horse
Much lighter, racier, first type of carriage that made driving an enjoyable leisurely activity
- A litter, also known as a sedan chair was introduced in the late 17th century, carried by men, it was used by the more elegant citizens
- Royal Mail System, made public by Charles I in 1635 enabled the easy transport of mail in England •Transport was greatly improved
•Traffic was regulated using turnpike trusts formed by rich men, travelers had to pay tolls

•1755 – the Conestoga wagon is developed in the United States
Could be drawn by horses, mules or oxen
Large and could transport very heavy loads of goods
Resembled a boat helped transport across streams, rivers
Large wheels to deal with mud
Curved roof covered by white canvas protected against weather
Carried American settlers west
•1759 – Bridgewater Canal in Britain made transport of goods much easier
Many more canals were dug in the late 18th century and the early 19th century
Played a major role in the industrial revolution by making it cheaper to transport goods.
•1784 – Mail Coach
John Palmer proposes that mail should be carried by special coaches with good horses, armed guards and no outside passengers
This idea is very successful and helps hasten the delivery time of mail Transport in the 1700's Christopher Avant Native American Medicine A) Health- health is maintained through the process of staying strong spiritually, mentally and physically They believed that violating tribal law caused illnesses, disabilities and bad luck as a consequence for disrupting harmony in the community In order to keep the forces that cause illness away one must remain strong (both in a physical and mental sense) to stay in harmony with themselves and others and the environment Additional Information Examples of Herbs: Tobacco was a common plant used in many cures, Sage helped protect against bad spirits and draw them out of the body
Examples of rituals: sweat baths, wearing medicine bags hung and charms
Sweat baths: resemble modern day saunas or steam roomssweat lodges were used for healing and balancing, consisted of hot stones covered in water in a small, confined, dark, lodge-like enclosure Most doctors were not surgeons, and surgeons not doctors
Early catholic church forbade physicians to perform surgery, considered bad to open up or cut a dead/living body
Some people, instead of going to surgeons or doctors to get something removed, went to the barber
Odds of seeing a physician/ quality of medical assistance depended on one wealth, social status
No hospitals, no care centers, family members looked after each other; process of nursing began
ex: birthing was a communal event (midwifery)- trade with native Americans for herbal remedies that cured diseases
Orthodox medicine used because it was scholarly, person died of illness not caretaking
Disease made for very rough living in the early American colonies Medicine people/healers- traditional, had powers that other members of the tribe lacked, these powers came from spiritual visions or were passed down by being born into a family with many generations of medicine people B) 2 main way of healing: use of herbs gathered from the environment and traditional rituals and practices passed down through generation Did you know...? Dates 1628- William Harvey presents his of the circulatory system, describing the functions of the heart, arteries and veins, *considered a great advance in medicine

1633- the first small pox epedimic hits the colonies in N. America

1667- having performed the first ever blood transfusion on a dog a year earlier, Dr. Robert Lower is credited with the first successful direct blood transfusion on a human being

1667- Jean Dennis is credited with the first ever animal-to-human blood transfusion, this technique was then condemned by the medical society and the Pope 1768- William Hewson disproves Plato’s theory that changes in temperature in blood causes clotting

1774- English chemist Joseph Priestley isolated oxygen, reffering to the substance as “dephlagisticated air” (credited with the discovery of oxygen also)

1774- chemist, Antoine Lavosier, “father of chemistry” studies the of oxygen in combustion and respiration

1774 English chemist Joseph Priestley isolated oxygen as the component in air that brightened dark venous blood. Refers to the substance as "dephlagisticated air." Credited with discovering oxygen. And interesting fact he was later guiottined (did not say what for)

Late 1700’s- people begin to seriously question the art of blood letting Dates “18th Century- the technology, science, and inventions.” 18th Century- Timeline andInventions of the 18th Century. About.com, n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012.
Chronology of Medical/Technological Advances. Perfline, n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012.Early 1700’s Medicine. Prezi, 4 Dec. 2012. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://prezi.com/ cshudmi5boqo/early-1700s-medicine>."Colonial Williamsburg." 18th-Century Modes of Travel : The Official History Site.Colonial Williamsburg, n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://www.history.org/history/ teaching/enewsletter/april03/iotm.cfm>.Gascoigne, Bamber. "History of Transport and Travel." HistoryWorld. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2012. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=kwq“Health and Medicine.” Slidesshare. N.p., 1 Nov. 2008. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <http://www.slideshare.net/ljhc/health-and-medicine-presentation>.“The History of Medicine in America.” The Wellness Directory of Minnesota. N.p., n.d.Web. 3 Sept. 2012.“Medicine in The 1600’s Through The 1750’s.” Medicine in American History.WordPress, n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012.Middle Age Medicine. ThinkQuest, n.d. Web. 3 Sept. 2012.<http://library.thinkquest.org/ 03oct/02068/middle_age_medicine.hmt>. “Native American Medicine.” Health. FAQS, 2012. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.d BIBLIOGRAPHY
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