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Adapted from Andrew Cantrell.

Emily Limkeman

on 17 January 2018

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Transcript of Personality

Less Intelligent
Affected by Mood
Tough Minded
Self Assured
Group Dependent
More Intelligent
Emotionally Stable
Happy Go Lucky
Self Sufficient
Cattell’s 16 Source Traits
The relatively stable patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving
Trait- a word that describes a relatively constant aspect of a person’s personality

Several different psychologists and ideas in this area
Eysenck disagrees…
Hans Eysenck

Played around with factor analysis and concluded that there were just 2 basic dimensions of personality

Stability vs. Instability

Introversion vs. Extroversion
The Big Five
penness to Experience – Open minded, willing to try new things

onscientiousness – Dutiful, dedicated, organized

xtroversion - Warm, talkative, energetic

greeableness – Sympathetic, kind, trusting

euroticism(Emotional Stability) – are emotions experienced easily without getting upset, or are unpleasant emotions a common occurrence?
Socio-Cultural Theory
- which is more important, the individual person or the community/group as a whole?
How much power do we feel we have to change the world, our situation, etc?
Do we seek out the unknown or do we avoid it?
Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance
What aspects of a culture affect our personality, or who we become?
What are women "supposed" to be like?
What are women "supposed" to do?
Gender Roles
Do we work now so that we may reap our rewards in the future? Or do we do what feels good in the moment?

-immediate gratification vs. delayed gratification
Future Rewards
Internal States
(thoughts, feelings, values, opinions, etc.
We either feel powerless, that fate controls our lives and we can't change it. Just accept your fate.
We feel powerful, that we are in control of our own lives.
Albert Bandura
and the Bobo doll experiment
-Curiosity vs. Tradition
Non Trait Theory Typology
It is normal for men to play field hockey in many other countries
Erin Dimeglio, first female high school quarterback
What are men "supposed" to be like?
What are men "supposed" to do?
What kinds of toys did you play with when you were a kid?
Probably don't see this very often, do you?
Trait Theory
Being the Ego is tough!
The Ego will use Defense Mechanisms to protect itself when it cannot handle the Id/Super Ego conflict

Defense Mechanisms are distortions of reality that come from the unconscious portion of the Ego
Considered the grandfather of modern psychology

Freud suggested that most of our personality is actually unconscious (a.k.a. outside of awareness, we don’t know about it)

Thought that all of our actions were driven by the need for sex and aggression
the most conscious part of the mind that finds compromises between the competing Id and Super Ego
Justifying or making up excuses
Burying anxiety or guilt provoking thoughts/memories in the unconscious
We quite literally cannot remember repressed moments

Refusing to accept the reality of an unpleasant situation
Inner feelings are thrown, or projected, outside the self and assigned to others

Ex. When a person thinks others dislike him, when, in reality, he really dislikes himself
Reaction Formation
Replacing an unacceptable feeling or urge with an opposite one
Going back to an earlier and less mature pattern of behavior

Ex. Throw a temper tantrum, cry loudly, make faces, pouting
Cannot take out your anger on the source of your frustrations, so you displace your anger and take it out on a less powerful person

Ex. Yelling at a sibling when you want to yell at your parents
Redirecting a forbidden desire into a socially acceptable desire

Ex. Angered by your friends’ arrogant attitude, so you work extra hard at soccer practice-channeling aggressive feelings into physical activities
Personality is developed through classical and operant conditioning (rewards and punishments)
B. F. Skinner
John Watson
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Alfred Adler
Carl Jung
Erik Erikson
Birth Order
First Child
initially have all the attention, but then lose it to brothers/sisters
•Goal setters
•High achievers
•Rule Keepers
•Detail people
Middle Child
Often considered the "lost" or "forgotten" child
• Flexible
Last Child
Often overindulged, considered "the baby"
•Risk takers
•Idea people
•Question authority
Only Child
Similar to first borns, but never suffer the feeling of dethronement
•Mature faster
•Get along well
with older people
•Attention seekers
•Use adult language
•Prefer adult company
•Have difficulty sharing
-worked with Freud for several years

-eventually Freud and he split up, and Jung went on to form his own theories

-Like Freud, Jung emphasized the role of the unconscious in determining human behavior

-Jung, however, believed our personality is mainly determined by something he called the
collective unconscious
-Essentially the same as Freud's "Ego"
-Our day to day awareness and memories
-stores repressed memories and forgotten individual experiences
-not Id/Super Ego driven, more like personal experience warehouse
-a group of instincts, ideas and beliefs that are present in all people from birth

-inherited from the combined experience of many, many past generations

-Jung called these ideas common to all people
Archetypes of the person:
Anima - masculinity
Animus - femininity

Archetypal Characters:
The Child
The Hero
The Great Mother
The Wise old man or Sage
The Damsel in distress
The Trickster or Fox
The Devil or Satan
-was trained in psychoanalysis by Anna Freud, Sigmund's daughter

-known for his theory of the Eight Psychosocial Stages of Development
Social Cognitive Theory
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis
The 3 Parts of Personality
Personality is based on our desire to be the best we can possibly be, to grow and improve upon ourselves.
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
-was an associate of Freud's

-split off from Freud's ideas after several years to develop his own approach to personality, which he termed Individual Psychology
4,500 traits is still WAY too many
Raymond Cattell
Took Allport’s 4,500 words and compared them using a process called factor analysis to narrow it down to just 16 traits, which he called source traits
It ALL starts with Gordon Allport
looked through the dictionary for possible traits and found 18,000 of them – narrowed that down to 4,500

organized traits into 3 distinct categories
traits: Characteristics we exhibit ALL of the time (very rare)

traits: Characteristics we exhibit most of the time

traits: Characteristics we exhibit in specific situations
The Id is all about primitive instincts and biological desires
Life instinct (Eros) – food, water, sex
Death instinct (Thanatos) – aggression, destruction

the Id is responsible for anxiety
the conscience, what makes you follow the rules of society. (What you “should” do)

The Super ego is responsible for guilt
Super Ego
The Iceberg Analogy
Freudian Slips
Angel and Devil on shoulders
Freud in the media
Ex. A divorced father, who resents having his child for the weekend, feels wrong about his feelings, so he overcompensates with love, toys, and exciting trips
Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt
Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self
Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, failure results in regret and bitterness.
Karen Horney
"Moving Toward People"
"Moving Away from People"
Alfred Adler
The Inferiority Complex
"Moving against people"

A person with an inferiority complex is lacking in self esteem/self worth, and is often plagued by doubt and uncertainty

Oftentimes a person will compensate for feelings of inferiority by displaying a superior attitude
Doing The Opposite
Personality: Fixed Or Fluid?
The Ink Blot Test
What happened?
What are the characters experiencing & feeling?

Our stories
reveal our
personalities &
Projective Tests
Full transcript