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Life in Colonial America
Transcript of Life in Colonial America
By the mid-seventeenth century, trade was benefitting England and the colonies. The British protected colonial ships and the colonies had access to British markets
Southern colonies developed staple export economies using indentured and later slave labor.
Booms and busts experienced, much like English economy.
Cumulatively, the colonial economy grew at a slow rate.
Prosperity and great prosperity encountered.
nearly 1/4 of Americans were enslaved and consumed very little.
wealthiest 10% of the population owned 1/3 to 2/3 of the total wealth Bibliography What it meant to “Be a Man” in Colonial Society
To have social power
To be educated
To contribute to the community
To participate in government
To own property
To maintain a family What It Meant to be a Woman in Colonial Society:
To maintain household order-gardening, tending livestock, spinning, weaving, cooking, cleaning, washing
To encourage faith and moral development
To be subordinate to men (patriarchal society) Role of Children-English Role of Children-Slaves Role of Men-Indians Role of Men-Slaves Role of Women-Slaves Role of Women-Indians “I am perpetually taken up giving out orders, in prescribing duties, in hearing parties disputes, in administering justice, and in distributing rewards and punishments…In short, I look upon my family as a patriarchal sovereign, in which I am myself both king and priest.” – 1712 Spectator magazine contributor “Let your Dress, your Conversation and the whole Business of your life be to please your husband and make him happy.” Once they were apprenticed, boys were expected to learn and perform the duties of adult tradesmen.
By the age of thirteen, girls were expected to share in all the tasks of adult women.
Usually chose spouse based on parent's wishes
Boys depended on fathers for land, needing it to begin families of their own.
Girls needed dowries from their parents if they wanted desirable husbands.
Typically lost 1 or both of their parents by the time they reached maturity
1 child in 4 died in infancy, and half did not live to the age of 20 English -Tobacco Industry: began in 1612
-based the Southern Economy or years to come
-farming not as favorable in the North
-almost every colonist engaged in a certain amount of industry at home.
-craftsmen and artisans established themselves in colonial towns as cobblers, blacksmiths, rifle makers, cabinetmakers, silversmiths, and printers
-Iron Technology: Saugus works Natives -grew vital local food crops: corn, beans, pumpkins, and potatoes (helped settlers)
-farmlands stretched over hundreds of acres and supported substantial populations
-important trading partners to European immigrants, particularly in the creation of the fur trade Slaves -first began working with white indentured servants, and released after a few years
-later blacks would remain in service permanently.
-worked on tobacco farms, primarily in the south
-most slaves in the north lived in cities and worked in homes or shops English Natives Slaves English Slaves Natives -the journey to America was hard, people relied heavily on faith and prayer
-faith in God and the Bible is what helped them persevere
-Plymouth:They were grateful to God for sending the Indians who taught them how to survive in this new land.
-Protestant settlers outnumbered the Catholics
-The Great Awakening(1730s-1740s): emphasized the potential for every person to break away from the constraints of the past and start anew in his/her relationship with God. High sex ratio especially in Chesapeake meant women married by age 20 or 21.
Gave birth, on average, every two years
More independence in south than New England, because less were widowed and more men to choose from First slaves brought to the Americas were predominantly male
performed tasks from building houses to plowing fields Most men were shipped to the West Indies to work on the sugar crop
only male slaves were allowed to do carpentry and be blacksmiths
outnumbered by women
typically looked to escape
generally had trouble holding authority over wives because of the master's control over both of them Having children was an economic advantage for the slave's master, so women typically had her first child at 19, and following that, one every two and a half years.
Were expected to put the needs of the master and his family before her own children, thus returning to the fields shortly after childbirth.
Slave mothers often chose to stay in bondage, to protect their children, who were being raised by someone else while she worked
masters often looked to young African women as objects of their sexual fantasies, because they were so starkly different from prudish white women.
enjoyed a little bit more gender equality than other races -some natives -known as "praying Indians" converted to Christianity and joined Puritan communities -culture: communicated in Gullah
-slave religion: blend of Christianity with African folklore
-became central element in emergence of an independent black culture Academic American History: A Survey of America's Past. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.academicamerican.com/colonial/topics/women.htm.
A&E Television Networks. "Colonial American Economy." History. Last modified 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.history.com/topics/colonial-economy.
———. "Colonial American Economy." History. Last modified 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.history.com/topics/colonial-economy.
Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey. 12th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill, n.d.
———. American History: A Survey. 12th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill, n.d.
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. "Experience The Life." Colonial Williamsburg Official History Cite. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.history.org.
———. "Experience The Life." Colonial Williamsburg Official History Cite. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.history.org.
Gender Roles in Colonial America. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://public.gettysburg.edu/~tshannon/341/sites/Gender%20and%20Sexuality/Gender%20Roles.htm.
Hallam, Jennifer. "Historical Overview: Men, Women, and Gender." Slavery and the Making of America. Last modified 2004. Accessed November 7, 2012. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/gender/history.html.
———. "Historical Overview: Men, Women, and Gender." Slavery and the Making of America. Last modified 2004. Accessed November 7, 2012. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/gender/history.html.
An Old-Time Colonial House (Built in 1634, Beaford, Mass.). Photograph. Life in the American Colonies.
Slave Quarters in 1908. Photograph. AshLawn-Highland, Charlottesville, VA.
The Sullivan Slave House. Photograph. Colonial Life in New Hampshire. Kellscraft Studio, Boston, MA. All tribes assigned women the jobs of caring for children, preparing meals, and gathering certain foods.
In the Algonquins, the Iroquois , and the Muskogees, women tended the fields
Were often left alone for extended periods while men were away hunting or fighting battles.
Tended to control social and economic organization of settlements
Many tribes traced back through the mother's line instead of the father's Pueblos, among other tribes reserved farming entirely for men
within the Algonquins, the Iroquois and the Muskogees, men engaged in hunting, warfare, or clearing land
A man could have many wives, depending on how able he was to provide for them. would play games similar to lacrosse and baseball Children were important to the prosperity of the group. Children were treated like responsible individuals and members of the group almost from infancy, in order to let them develop into self reliant adults. Girls commonly married between the ages of 15 and 17, and boys from about 18 to 20. Marriages were arranged by the parents, who were from different clans. outnumbered men two to one were treated generally as bad as adults, just a little bit of preferential treatment
almost always got no education and were illiterate
many were born, as it was a source of economic gain for masters