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Research Measurement

MBA 2015/2016
by

Ryan Falconi

on 14 September 2015

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Transcript of Research Measurement

Conceptualization
Conceptualization is the process of development and clarification of concepts.
Levels of Measurement
The deficiencies model of an introduction
But first…the introduction
Measurement of Constructs
True or False
Ethnographic and narrative research designs follow quantitative research procedures.
RESEARCH MEASUREMENT
THANK YOU!
Creswell:
Deirdre Snoijl
Taneisha Tromp
Cavril Rombley

State the research problem:
Begin with a narrative hook
Clearly identify problem that lead to need for study
Indicate why problem is important by citing numerous references
“The introduction is the part of the paper that provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper. Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research.” (Wilkinson, 1991)

- Theoretical propositions consist of relationships between abstract constructs.
Case studies focus on a program, event, or activity involving individuals rather than a group.
Narrative research focuses on large groups of people.
Documenting the chronology of experiences is an essential component of Narrative research
Literature reviews play a huge
role in developing a narrative research study.
Theory of Measurement
Review studies that have addressed the problem:
Justify the importance of the problem
Create distinctions between past studies and proposed studies
The deficiencies model of an introduction (Cont`d)
Advance the significance of the study for particular audiences:
Give 3-4 reasons the study adds to the scholarly literature
Give 3-4 reasons the study helps to improve practice
Give 3-4 reasons the study will improve policy
State the purpose statement
Indicate deficiencies in the studies:
For example: topic not yet explored with particular group, literature needs to be replicated with new people
Tell how proposed study will remedy or address the deficiencies, and provide a unique contribution to the literature
CRESSWELL
BHATTA
Chapter 5
The Purpose Statement
Chapter 6
Research Questions and Hypotheses
Chapter 7
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Researches states a research questions(not objectives or hypotheses)
The Research question is a central question and associated with sub questions.
The intent is to explore the complex set of factors surrounding the central phenomenon and present the varied perspectives or meanings that participants hold.

EXAMPLE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUESTION
Good example:
How do elderly people living in a retirement
home perceive their situation and how are they
dealing with it?

Bad example:
What kind of emotions and attitudes motivate
individuals to take part in mass events?

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Inquire about the relationships among variables and frequently used in social science research and survey studies


Predictions the researcher makes about expected relationships among variables

QUANTITATIVE HYPOTHESES
Hypothesis vs Theory
TYPES OF HYPOTHESES
Null Hypotheses

Alternate Hypotheses (Directional Hypothesis)

Non-directional Hypothesis
INTEGRATIVE MODEL FOR CASE:
Operationalization
SCALING
INDEXES
TYPOLOGIES
Chapter 6
Scale Reliability & Validity
Chapter 7
“It is unwise to be too sure of one’s own wisdom. It is healthy to be reminded that the strongest might weaken and the wisest might err.”

Mahatma Gandhi



Attributes and Antecedents of Customer Engagement in Digital Ecosystems -
An Empirical Study on Mechanisms and Measurements for Engaging Customers [in…]

Random Errors
Systematic Errors
Reliability
Validity
The consistency of our measurement
The accuracy of our measurement
Reliability
Validity
Test-retest reliability
Split-half reliability
Internal consistency
reliability
Inter-rater reliability
Tips
Clear conceptualization
Standardization
Increase the number of items
Use more precise measurement
Use multiple indicators
Pilot testing and replication
Intro:
Andre Lethang

Bhatta:
Ryan Falconi
Ghislaine Williams

The Introduction
Ms. Deirdre
Research Questions & Hypothesis
Mrs. Cavril
Measurement of Constructs
Mr. Ryan
Scale Reliability & Validity
Ms. Ghislaine
Purpose Statement
Ms. Taneisha
Research Approach
Selection

The use of Theories
Research Design
Theories in Scientific Research
Review of the Literature
The Case
Title: The Role of Customer Engagement in Building Consumer Loyalty to Tourism Brands
Authors: Kevin Kam Fung So, Ceridwyn King, Beverley A. Sparks, and Ying Wang

As tourism and hospitality firms have widely adopted customer engagement strategies for managing customer–brand relationships, further understanding of this concept is essential.

This study investigates the linkages of customer engagement with traditional antecedents of brand loyalty.

The
Introduction
Pupose
Statement
Research Questions
& Hypothesis
Measurement of Constructs
Scale Reliability & Validity
Quantitative
Qualitative
"A crisp introduction is an essential ingredient of a good paper" (Jha, 2014)
"A good introduction will 'sell' the study to editors, reviewers, readers, and sometimes even the media"
(Kotz & Vals, 2013)
And....the winners are: ????
What?
Why?
How?
Where?
Significance & Meaning
Types of Purpose Statement
Qualitative

Quantitative

Mixed Methods
Case Study Analysis
Identify the Purpose Statement and the type
In other words, clarifying one's concepts with words and examples and arriving at precise verbal definitions.
e.g., what is meant by education?


e.g., What do we mean by
"social status?”
These are called “dimensions”
of social status.
Wealth (millionaire)
Prestige (Harvard professor)
Power (military general)
Dimensions
• We classify different meanings into different groups. Such groups are called "dimensions."
• A concept may have more than one dimension (e.g., as in case of social status).
Once a theoretical construct is defined, how do we measure it?
The process of developing indicators or items for measuring these constructs.
Indicators
When a dimension is not directly observable, we
use indicators.
• For example, to measure power, we may use
– (1) number of people under your supervision
– (2) extent of your supervision
– (3) your annual budget
– (4) amount of equipment under your control
• One major difference is the level of abstraction:

Concept Dimension Indicator


Comparison of Concept, Dimension, and Indicator
Variables
A variable is a statistical term, meaning a
quantity that can take on different possible
values.
• Both dimension and indicator can be
variables.
• Can a concept be a variable?
Concept
Dimension(s)
D1
D2
D3
1-1
I
1-3
I
1-2
I
C
Overview
Indicators
When it comes to measurement, we are talking about variables and indicators.
Definition of measurement: "the assignment of numbers or labels to units of analysis to represent variable categories."
Numbers mean different things under different circumstances.
Nominal
Nominal measurement is a system in which cases are classified into two or more categories on some variable.
Ordinal
In ordinal measurement, numbers indicate the ranking order on a dimension.
There is no intrinsic scale - only relative rankings are measured
Interval
Interval measurement assumes equal
distances or intervals between "numbers."
Numbers represent not only rankings but also “values.”
Ratio
If an interval variable has an absolute zero, it becomes a ratio variable.
E.g., weight, number of siblings, birth rate, etc.
Rating Scales
Rating Scales
The Process of Creating Indicators
Authors state the narrative hook
Authors identify a problem that leads to the study
Identify deficiencies in past Literature, New media channels need to be explored.
Authors justify the importance of the problem.
Authors create distinctions between past & proposed studies.
Deficiencies in the study are noted.
Tell how study will remedy deficiencies.
Study adds to scholarly literature.
Purpose of the study is identified.
- These constructs must be measured accurately, correctly, and in a scientific matter.
Face validity
Content validity
Convergent validity
Predictive validity
Concurrent validity
Chapter 5
TIME FOR A QUIZ
Customer engagement is positively related to brand evaluation.
Service brand evaluation is positively related to brand loyalty
Customer engagement is positively related to brand loyalty.
Service brand evaluations is positively related to brand trust.
Customer engagement is positively related to brand trust.
Brand trust is positively related to brand loyalty.
When a concept has only one dimension with one indicator, a concept is practically equivalent to a variable.
Highly abstract Abstract Concrete
• One concept may have multiple dimensions; and one dimension may have multiple indicators
“Amount of knowledge and training acquired in school."
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