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Foster Children

Lifespan/Development
by

Skyler Dobernecker

on 11 October 2013

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Transcript of Foster Children

DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS OF FOSTER CHIDLREN
DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS OF FOSTER CHILDREN
-Trust vs. Mistrust
-This stage is crucial for healthy development
-Neglect, abuse, instability, and drug use can be detrimental to building trusting relationships.
ISSUES OF ATTACHMENT
-Most children removed from their parent(s) before the age of 7 months will not be allowed to return. Children removed over the age of 10 years old are take much longer to be reunited.
-The state becomes responsible to not only find a safe alternative but also to provide a placement that will provide a positive attached relationship crucial for development.
-Those placed in foster care often experience multiple placements.
COUNSELING IMPLICATIONS
Intake assessments
Lifespan developmental issues
doe not only impact children
Parental/Foster parent psycho-education
Support/psycho-educational groups
Relational aspect
School vs. Agency
Often times remedial rather than preventative
Advocacy...working as agents of change/social justice
Multicultural considerations
FACTS ABOUT FOSTER CHILDREN
2011 STATISTICS

number in foster care- 400,540
number entered- 252,320
number exited- 245,260
number waiting to be adopted- 104,236
mean age- 9.3
52% male 48% female

INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
•Trauma Focused CBT
•Abuse Focused CBT
•Parent Child Interaction Therapy
•Child Parent Psychotherapy for Family Violence
•CB Interventions for Trauma is Schools
•TF-CBT for Childhood Traumatic Grief
•Project 12 Ways/ Safe Care Child Neglect**
•Filial Therapy**
•Parent Management Training
•Rational Emotive Therapy
•Anger Coping Problem solving & Assertiveness Training
•Multisystem Therapy
•Mentoring
•Foster Care Therapist Handbook**
•Handbook for Youth in Foster Care**
•Play Therapy with Adolescents by Gallo-Lopez
PLACEMENT SETTINGS

Foster Family Home (Relative)
27% 107,995
Foster Family Home (Non-Relative)
47% 188,222

CASE GOALS

Reunify with Parent(s) or Principal Caretaker(s)
52% 199,123
Adoption
25% 94,629
FOSTER CHILD BILL OF RIGHTS
Age at Entry
7.7 (mean)

Age at Exit
9.4 (mean)
Reasons for Discharge

Reunification with Parent(s) or Primary Caretaker(s)
52% 125,908
Adoption
20% 49,866

Time in Care
21.1 months (mean)

Children waiting to be adopted
8 years old (mean)
Even more than for other children, society has a responsibility, along with parents, for the well-being of children in foster care. Citizens are responsible for acting to insure their welfare.

Every child in foster care is endowed with the rights inherently belonging to all children. In addition, because of the temporary or permanent separation from, and loss of, parents and other family members, the child requires special safeguards, resources, and care.

http://www.nfpaonline.org/Default.aspx?pageId=1105707
HISTORY OF FOSTER CARE
-Some of the earliest documentation of children being cared for in foster homes can be found in the Old Testament and in the Talmud.
-1562, these laws allowed the placement of poor children into indentured service until they came of age (step forward from almshouses where children did not learn a trade)
-At the age of seven, Benjamin Eaton became this nation's first foster child
-In 1853, Charles Loring Brace began the free foster home movement
-State governments became involved in foster home placements. Three states led the movement.
-During the early 1900's, social agencies began to supervise foster parents
-A child’s development is highly influenced by their environment.
-These experiences shape a child’s reality with affects their development and psychological health
-Microsystem- Biological parents, social workers, foster parents, relatives, etc.
-Mesosystem-Interactions between multiple environments.
-Exosystem-People and environments that indirectly affect the child.
-Macrosystem-Culture and values of society.
Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Theory
Erickson’s 8 Stages of Psycho-Social Development
What happens at age 18?
-Most services are taken away.
-More likely to drop out of school, become homeless, become teen parents, use drugs, commit criminal activity, etc.
-Society says that these adolescents are adults.
-Incongruence with the development of the prefrontal cortex.
-Impulsive behavior.
Needs
-Caring stable adults
-Friends and a support group
-Empowerment to make their own decisions
-High expectations
-Start early to prepare for adulthood
-Increase responsibility
-Celebrate success
Broderick, P., & Blewitt, P. (2009). The Life Span: Human development for helping professionals (3rd ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson.

Bruskas, D. (2010). Developmental Health of Infants and Children Subsequent to Foster Care. Journal Of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(4), 231-241

Helping Youth Transition to Adulthood: Guidance for Foster Parents. (2013). Helping Youth Transition to Adulthood: Guidance for Foster Parents, 24.

The Effects of Foster Care
-Loss of Secure Attachment
-“Windows of Opportunity” Lost
-First three years of life
-Brain Development is a hierarchical process
-The child needs to be able to explore the world in close proximity of an attachment figure, ensures optimal emotional and brain growth
-Children may present with anxiety, frustration, oppositional behavior, crying, clinging, fear
-Unable to decipher a “safe stranger from an un safe stranger” (Zeanah, Berlin, Boris, 2011)
-Increasing a child’s risk of behavioral problems, mental health problems, substance abuse issues, difficulties with emotional regulation and have cognitive issues
-Older children have demonstrated an increase in major mental health issues including: major depression, PTSD (Bruskas, 2010)
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study
-The ACE Study is ongoing collaborative research between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, GA, and Kaiser Permanente in San Diego, CA.
-Correlates untreated childhood adversity with an increase risk in poor developmental health and increase in major disease later in life.
-ACE score (Bruskas, 2010)
Reducing Attachment Disruptions
-Supportive Services for mothers and children
-In depth, quality training for foster care parents and adoptive parents
-Allowing infants to stay with their mothers under close supervision, even in the case of substance abuse treatment and incarceration (Beth Troutman, Ph.D., Susan Ryan, M.A.,)
-Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997
-was the most significant piece of legislation dealing with child welfare in almost twenty years.
-To promote the adoption of foster care children
-Accelerate permanent placements
-Required States to create shorter time limits to make decisions about permanent placements
Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 P.L. 105-89. Retrieved from: https://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/federal/index.cfm?event=federalLegislation.viewLegis&id=4

Beth Troutman, Ph.D., Susan Ryan, M.A., and Michelle Cardi, M.A. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Retrieved from: http://www.healthcare.uiowa.edu/icmh/archives/reports/foster_care.pdf

Bruskas, D. (2010). Developmental Health of Infants and Children Subsequent to Foster Care. Journal Of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(4), 231-241. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6171.2010.00249.x

Zeanah, C. H., Berlin, L. J., & Boris, N. W. (2011). Practitioner Review: Clinical applications of attachment theory and research for infants and young children. Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 52(8), 819-833.

Counseling Strategies for Foster Children and Youth
LOCAL AGENCIES
•Casa Guanajuato
•Christian Alliance for Orphans
•Bethany for Children and Families
•Lutheran Social Services of Illinois
•Center for Youth and Family Solutions
 Project 12 Ways/ Safe Care for Child Neglect
•Focus of Child Neglect
•Based on Behavioral Principles
•Prevention
•For Parents with history of abuse, depression, child nutrition maltreatment, disabilities
•Improves Interpersonal Relationships and Functioning
 Project 12 Ways: 12 Focuses
•P/C Interaction
•Stress Reduction
•Basic Skills Training
•Money Management
•Social Support
•Home Safety Training
•Multi-setting Behavioral Management
•Infant/ Child Health
•Problem Solving
•Martial Counseling
•Alcohol Abuse Referral
•Prenatal Services
Filial Therapy
•Goal: Improve Child-Parent Relationship (Does Not Focus On the Problem, Correct Behavior or the “Why”) and to Change the Parent
•Strengthen the Child/Adolescent- Parent Relationship
-Parental Awareness of Needs
-Reduction of Parental Stress
-Better child-parent relationship
•Become Future and Strength Orientated
 Filial for Children and Adolescents
•Children:
-Derived from Play Therapy with task so teach parents PT skills to do with children G
-Gives parents: instruction, demonstration play sessions, required play sessions and supervision
•Adolescents:
-Needs are learning to communicate with motor activity and verbal discourse
-Leads teens to self-actualization and allows parents to meet at appropriate developmental framework
-Parents are taught: Active Listening, Identifying emotional needs, therapeutic limit setting, building self- esteem, and Filial weekly sessions
-Some Foster Teenagers never has the option to play with childhood toys, this is a nonjudgmental therapy approach that encourages a fruitful environment.
Application
•The activity should be planned by the child/teen
•Crafts, Cooks, Home Projects
•Avoid Competition and Rules i.e. sports and board games
•Promoting freedom
•Interactive between parent and child, No T.V./ Movies

Multisystemic Therapy
-Used for the treatment of serious antisocial behavior in youths, as well as those who have other serious needs such as treatment for substance abuse and emotional disturbances. It is also good for those who are at a high risk for out of home placement; foster children fall into this category.
-Family and community based, strength based, action oriented
-Bronfenbrenner's Social Ecological model provides the framework for this therapy
-This framework helps target the risk factors on each level as well as between levels
-Home based intervention
-Talking to multiple first hand sources is important
-Caregivers play an important role in teaching strategies to the child
-There is not a rigid treatment plan, the plan is based on 9 principles
Presented by: Melanie Battistoni, Skyler Dobernecker, Amanda Dybek, Brittany Littrel, Aubree Payne,
Full transcript