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Transcript of Earthquake Project
This major earthquake caused 63 deaths, 3,757 injuries, and an estimated $6 billion in property damage.
"We have a much better understanding of the long-term earthquake probabilities," said Brad Aagaard, a research geophysicist at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earthquake Science Center in Menlo Park, California. The USGS says the probability of a magnitude-6.7 earthquake on the Hayward Fault in the next 30 years is 30 percent. There's a 63 percent chance of a major earthquake (magnitude 6.7) somewhere in the Bay Area in the next 30 years.
How to become a Geophysicist
In high school take as many math, science and computer classes as possible.
In college, a strong background in science (especially physics and geology), math and computer science.
Get hands-on experience by volunteering or getting an internship.
Fact: A geophysicist is a scientist who uses gravity, magnetic, electrical, and seismic methods to study the Earth.
Spend time outdoors studying earth's features (land forms and bodies of water).
Spend time indoors using computers to make models and calculations.
In the quake’s aftermath:
1. San Francisco and other communities enacted strict regulations requiring unreinforced masonry buildings to be retrofitted.
2. All bridges in the area underwent seismic retrofitting to make them more resistant to earthquakes.
3. Many public utilities have strengthened their systems since Loma Prieta hit, but experts say that the San Francisco airport, the BART rail system, the ports, the highways and the Golden Gate Bridge may not withstand severe shaking from a direct hit.
Scientists have vastly improved the network of instruments that measure California earthquakes. At the time of Loma Prieta, the Bay Area had 75 ground motion sensors. Now, there are 580 stations in northern and central California, and researchers hope to install even more.
Loma Prieta Earthquake
San Francisco-Oakland Earthquake
Earthquake Project Prezi created by Raydean Aroz
More than 80 of the 1,500 bridges in the area sustained minor damage, 10 required temporary supports, and 10 were closed owing to major structural damage.
Fifty-one aftershocks of magnitude 3.0 and larger occurred during the first day after the main shock, and 16 occurred during the second day.
After 3 weeks, 87 magnitude 3.0 and larger aftershocks had occurred.
On October 17, the Oakland Athletics and San Francisco Giants, both local teams, had reached the World Series. The third game of the series was scheduled to begin at 5:30 p.m. at San Francisco’s Candlestick Park. At 5:04 p.m., with live cameras on the field, an earthquake rocked the San Francisco Bay region. The quake was centered near Loma Prieta Peak (approximately 60 miles south of San Francisco) in the Santa Cruz Mountains and lasted around 15 seconds. The earthquake was triggered by a slip along the San Andreas Fault. Though the stadium withstood the shaking, other parts of the Bay Area were not as fortunate. It was felt over an area of about 400,000 square miles. The baseball championship, which was suspended for 10 days, would come to be known as the “Earthquake Series.”
San Francisco’s Marina district was hit hard because it had been built on filled land comprising loose, sandy soil.
The World Wide Web was only 8 months old when the Loma Prieta earthquake struck.
Today, the Internet instantly alerts the world to the chaos and destruction caused by major earthquakes.
The USGS automatically generates maps of shaking intensity within seconds of most major earthquakes, identifying the hardest-hit areas. The system also estimates total fatalities and economic losses. (Most loss of life and damage during an earthquake stems from ground shaking.)
1. Every single day there is a 100% chance of an earthquake.
2. It is estimated that there are 500,000 detectable earthquakes in the world each year.
100,000 of those can be felt and 100 of them cause damage.
3. Earthquakes cannot currently be predicted
4. The majority of earthquakes occur along plate boundaries such as the boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American Plate.
5. The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 810 miles through California and forms tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate,
6. During the past 3 million years the average range of motion across the San Andreas fault zone is about the same rate at which your fingernails grow. Scientists predict that at the current rate San Francisco will be next to Los Angles in another 15 million years.
7. The cause of earthquakes was stated correctly in 1760 by British engineer John Michell, one of the first fathers of seismology who wrote that earthquakes and the waves of energy that they make are caused by “shifting masses of rock miles below the surface”.
8. The magnitude of an earthquake is measured by the amount of seismic energy released by the earthquake, it is the same no matter where you are or how much shaking takes place during the earthquake.
9. The intensity of an earthquake is based on the observed effects of ground shaking on people, buildings, and natural features. The intensity is greatest at the epicenter.
10. After the 1906 San Francisco quake, it is said that more damage was done by the resulting fire than the quake.
11. People generally respond with fear and confusion during an earthquake.
12. Knowing what to do during an earthquake can save your life and the lives of others.
Fact: It is estimated that there are 500,000 detectable earthquakes in the world each year. 100,000 of those can be felt and 100 of them cause damage.
Fact: Earthquakes cannot currently be predicted.
Fact: The majority of earthquakes occur along plate boundaries such as the boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American Plate - known as the Ring of Fire.
The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 810 miles through California and forms tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate.
During the past 3 million years
the average range of motion across the San Andreas fault zone is about the same rate at which your fingernails grow.
Scientists predict that at the current rate San Francisco will be next to Los Angles in another 15 million years.
Sometimes an earthquake has
, which are
smaller earthquakes that happen before the larger earthquake
that follows. The
largest, main earthquake
is called the
. Mainshocks always have
that follow. These are
smaller earthquakes that occur afterwards
in the same place as the mainshock. Aftershocks can
continue for weeks, months, and even years
after the mainshock.
We feel the earth shake when the fault becomes unstuck and energy radiates outward from the fault in all directions - as seismic waves.
Earthquakes are recorded by instruments called seismographs.
Fact: The size of the earthquake is called its magnitude.
Scientists assign a magnitude rating to earthquakes based on the strength and duration of their seismic waves. A quake measuring 3 to 5 is considered minor or light; 5 to 7 is moderate to strong; 7 to 8 is major; and 8 or more is great.
Every single day there is a 100% chance of an earthquake.
An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth slide past one another on the fault or fault plane. The earthquake starts underground at the hypocenter and the location directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter.
Fact: The cause of earthquakes was stated correctly in 1760 by British engineer John Michell, one of the first fathers of seismology who wrote that earthquakes and the waves of energy that they make are caused by “shifting masses of rock miles below the surface”.
Fact: People generally respond with fear and confusion during an earthquake.
Fact: Knowing what to do during an earthquake can save your life and the lives of others.
Live Footage from the 1989 Earthquake