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PSYA4 - Addiction - Cognitive (1-3)
Transcript of PSYA4 - Addiction - Cognitive (1-3)
This approach puts an emphasis on cognitive thought processes underlying the addiction.
Addict believes it is important
This could be shaped by a person's....
1. Attitude towards the behaviour
- "Alcohol helps me feel confident and relaxed"
2. Perception of others' opinion
- "I need a drink to fit in"
3. Perception of their ability to control their own behaviour
- "I can't cope with social situations if I don't have a drink"
Cognitive bias in fruit machine gambling
Griffiths (1994) compared 30 regular gamblers with 30 non regular gamblers and measured their verbalisations as they played a fruit machine.
Regular gamblers believed they were more skilful than they actually were and were more likely to make irrational verbalisations during play (e.g. ‘putting only a quid in bluffs the machine’) they tended to treat the machine as if it were a person (e.g. ‘this fruity is not in a good mood’).
They also explained away their loses by seeing ‘near misses’ as ‘near wins’. Something which justified their continuation (they are nearly winning not losing!) = IRRATIONAL THINKING
Cognitive model - Faulty thinking
Faulty Thinking – Lots of gamblers make faulty judgements.
How many of you have;
A Lucky Number?
A Lucky Colour?
A Lucky Charm?
Examples of faulty thinking
A gambler may say things like “26 is my lucky number and it is the 26th today”
A smoker might say “I think the government overestimate the risks of smoking”
Using smoking and gambling as examples…Write down other common example of faulty thinking
You will need to know two models/theories
1. Self medication model
2. Rational Choice Theory
An exception to this rule appears to be gambling, as rational addiction theory would predict that gamblers, particularly those which lose, should not continue their gambling behaviour.
The study by Griffiths (1994) offers an explanation for this based on the cognitive bias (i.e. irrational thinking) that distorts the reasoning of addictive gamblers.
Weigh up the costs & benefits of;
Gareth started playing poker with his friends just for fun, now he finds himself increasingly drawn into a wold of online betting and casino gambling that is getting out of control.
Types of Exam Questions for this section
1. Having a stage of addiction mentioned in the question
5. An application style question
3. Identifying one of the three explanations
4. Specifying smoking or gambling in the question (next two lessons)
2. Choice of an explanation for an addiction (could specify the addiction)
- If a question is focused on one of the explanations/approaches remember that you may be able to gain AO2/3 marks by comparing or contrasting the model with the other two.....
1. Using your knowledge of the biological approach, explain one reason why Gareth finds it difficult to give up his gambling (4)
2. Using your knowledge of the biological approach, suggest why some people may be 'destined' to initiate smoking (4)
Model one - Self medication Model
Lesson 2 - Cognitive Approach
To be able to outline the main assumptions of the cognitive approach
Review of your homework
Become an expert in a section
Charlotte - Initiation & Maintenance of smoking
Seb & Eleanor - Relapse of smoking
James & Georgia- Initiation of gambling
Dana & Ruby - Maintenance of gambling
Jack & Emily W - Griffiths study
Sophie M - AO2 of gambling
Emily H - AO2 of smoking
Whiteboards only - NO WRITING IN EXERCISE BOOKS OR NOTES!
Speed Dating - 8 mins per table
June 2012 - Outline & Evaluate the cognitive approach to explaining problem gambling (4+6)
What would you give them?
Assessment books - Complete own answer
What can we learn from the examiners report?
( and Ao2)