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The Hebrews

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Emma Martone

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of The Hebrews

By: Aubrey Laudano, Emma Martone, and Kyle Sullivan The Hebrews The Religion and Ethical Beliefs of the Hebrews The Laws and Government of the Hebrews To begin, the Hebrews were run by three kings. The first was Saul, then David, and finally Solomon.
Saul secured his land from preventing hostile invasions, notably the by the Palestines.
He had two full time lieutenants under his commandment. One being his son, Johnathon, and the other being his cousin, Abner.
It is believed that Saul had a standing army whose main purpose was to signal his kingship.
David reign is remembered as "authentic". His mistakes weren't sugar coated. It is known that he had an affair with, Bathsheba, the wife of a subordinate. He was also known for making the Hebrews wealthier, and increasing the integrated political force.
He was known as a king with a totally human personality.
Solomon is known as the "builder" of the three kings for his excavations of northern Jerusalem. During his reign he extended the city's original border/limits.
Of the three kings David and Solomon were more ambitious.
The successors of the three kings brought monumental palaces, temples, foreign commerce, and the promotion of writing skills to the civilization.
They became more materialistic with the development of a larger difference between the rich and poor.
All the changes brought conflict and a departure in culture.
Over the next century the Hebrews endured many conflicts such as royal succession that made a theme of the Hebrews as a people. The Inventions and Accomplishments of the Hebrews The Ancient Hebrews' major addition to the world was their groundbreaking religion. The Fall of the Hebrews The religion of Monotheism did not die with the disbursement of the Hebrew empire.It still exist today.
Unlike other empires the Hebrews never had a distinct time when they fell.
In Egypt,in 1580 B.C.E when a new Pharaoh came into power the Hebrews were forced into slavery and were held captive. The Pharaoh held them in captivity because he felt as though his power was being threatened by them.
In 720 B.C.E Sumeria was conquered by the Assyrians and the fate of the Jews in Sumeria is still unknown to this day. They are known as, The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel (the Hebrews are also known as Israelites).
In 598 B.C.E King Nebachadnezzar of Babylonia invaded Judah. He sent most of the population to Babylonia for exile.
In 586 B.C.E Jerusalem fell under siege and was demolished.
In exile the Hebrews were able to participate in the economic and social life of their new homeland. They were even able to maintain a normal Jewish life and continue their religious practices.
In 538 B.C.E the Persians captured Babylon. Their king Cyrus allowed all the conquered people to return to their true homelands. Over 50,000 Jews decided to return to Judah, but many stayed in Babylon due to the new lives they had built.
In 516 B.C.E the second temple was built and centuries of peace followed. They were ruled by the Egyptians until 198 B.C.E when the Syrians take control. The Hebrew's Environment and Resources The Hebrews began as nomads in the second Millennium B.C. and their wanderings over a span of more than 1,000 years took them through most of the ancient Near East.
Abraham led the Hebrews from their hometown, Ur, as nomads. They migrated westward over the fertile crescent to settle in Canaan.
Abraham's descendants traveled south to Egypt, where they were held captive until they escaped around 1225 B.C. under the leadership of Moses.
Moses lead them back to Canaan.
The Rise of the Hebrews The Hebrews did not conquer or fight any other nations to become an empire. Bibliography

Broida, Marian. Ancient Israelites and Their Neighbors: An Activity Guide. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review, 2003. Print.Author received information from many professors, most of whom have PhD's. This book was fact-checked by experts, and also won the Sydney Taylor Book Award

Dijkstra, Henk. History of the Ancient and Medieval World: Ancient Cultures. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish, 1996. Print.This book is an encyclopedia made and edited by experts.

Grobman, Gary M. "A Brief History of the Jews." A Brief History of the Jews. N.p., 1990. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jfri.org/page.aspx?id=41407>. This article was viewed and published by The Jewish Federations of North America Inc.

Hare, John B. "The Babylonian Talmud." The Talmud. N.p., 2010. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/talmud.htm>. This article was written by multiple scholars devoted to providing a translation of the talmud.

Mann, Kenny. The Ancient Hebrews. New York: Benchmark, 1999. Print.The author is an exert on the subject, a journalist, and a film-maker with great interest in past cultures. The book was also edited by experts.

United Church of God. "The Rise and Fall of Ancient Israel." United Church of God. N.p., 1995. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ucg.org/booklet/middle-east-bible-prophecy/rise-and-fall-ancient-israel/>.This article was written and published by an organization. The organization's purpose is to stress the word of god so there may be some bias opinions. Abraham obeyed God's command to leave his home city, Ur, and travel.
He traveled through Canaan, into Egypt, and then back into Canaan, setting up various altars throughout the region.
He had a brief, non-violent conflict with the native Canaanites, but eventually settled near Hebron.
During his travels, Abraham's family was always growing... Resources:
Canaanite pastures had fertile soil that produced fruit, bread, wine, and oil.
They also had goats that provided cheese and milk and sheep that yielded wool.
Papyrus or bulrush grew in abundance along the banks of the lower Nile. Its stems were used to make beds, baskets, sandals, mats, rope, boats and for a writing material like paper.
Acacias is a tree with yellow blossoms that grew in the Sinai desert and near the Dead Sea. The wood was prized by cabinet makers it is supposedly what the Ark of the Covenant is made of.
Pomegranates are thick-skinned fruits whose name means "apple with seeds." the pulp contains juicy seeds that travelers used for a drink. http://www.handofgod.com.au/attachments/Image/ten_commandments5.gif http://www.jedword.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Abraham1.gif Abraham The Ancient Hebrews. http://www.abrahams-legacy.org/_domain/abrahams-legacy.org/images/family-tree.gif papyrus : http://legacy.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/tc_pap66.html Papyrus
used to make
paper. http://mishkanministries.org/theark.php The Ark of the Covenant
where the 10 Commandments
are kept, according to
the bible Judson, Knight. Ancient Civilization Almanac. Vol. India-Egypt. United States: UXL Gale Group, 2000. Print.
This was a good source because it is an Almanac and is edited and fact-checked by experts Donovan, Hedley. The Israelites. New York: Time-Life, 1975. Print. It was written by a professional association, The Time Life editors who have piblished many other almanacs The Talmud Their history is broken up into three main sections/periods; the Pentateuch, the Talmud, and post Talmudic literature.
The Pentateuch period formed the basis of the Talmud.
God was consequently the highest power source of law.
The Talmud is a vast collection of Jewish laws and traditions that was was based on the bible.
The Hebrews were governed by their religion, monotheism, considering the fact that the Talmud was based on the bible.
The Talmud was also based on the Torah.
The Torah which is translated to mean "the law" is made up of five books of the Testament. The Torah was given to Moses by the gods themselves on the top of Mount Sinai. It covers Jewish history from the Genesis(the creation of the world) through Exodus(the escape from Egypt.)
The Talmud, like the Torah, had no distinction between religion and secular law.
In criminal law death penalties were rare and almost impossible to be sentenced with. Any punishments inflicted were very mild. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=the+talmud&um=1&hl=en&tbo=d&biw=1441&bih=677&tbm=isch&tbnid=_Umo4HWbdMFV8M:&imgrefurl=http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php%3Fpage%3Darticles%26id%3D164809&docid=SIQ2ahV7mqfwMM&imgurl=http://www.islamweb.net/articlespictures/E_1775/164809.jpg&w=250&h=200&ei=OmycUMy0DNG90QH-m4CoCg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=386&vpy=272&dur=643&hovh=160&hovw=200&tx=71&ty=93&sig=109164413938614115236&page=1&tbnh=153&tbnw=177&start=0&ndsp=28&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:0,i:160 The Fall of the Hebrews continued... The Syrian ruler Antiochus IV wanted to stop Jewish practices. To prevent this from happening Jewish commander Judah Maccabee overcame the Syrian army and won many battles. After his victory Judah reentered the Temple, cleansed it of its desecrations, and rededicated it.
For the next 700 years the Roman empire ruled the area. They were known as the Palestines.
From 37 to 4 B.C.E King Herod ruled over Judah with the Roman senate.
In 70 C.E the Hebrews/Jews revolted from the Romans.
For 3 years the Romans tried to regain power but they didn't succeed.
In conclusion there was no distinct fall of the Hebrews. They transitioned from being an empire to a people who had created and continued to practice the religion of monotheism. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=the+second+hebrew+temple&um=1&hl=en&tbo=d&biw=1441&bih=677&tbm=isch&tbnid=ceA32OahkHEx6M:&imgrefurl=http://www.basicjudaism.org/temple.html&docid=PKz6ncezS4FLAM&imgurl=http://www.basicjudaism.org/judaism-images/second-temple-plan-2.jpg&w=350&h=296&ei=anicUP7-BOe90AGa3YDABg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=2&vpy=357&dur=42&hovh=206&hovw=244&tx=72&ty=195&sig=109164413938614115236&page=1&tbnh=140&tbnw=166&start=0&ndsp=27&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:0,i:113 The Hebrews, who are also known as the Israelites were Monotheists. They believed in only one all-powerful God.
Their religion formed a base for other modern day religions such as Christianity.
They believed in a God who created all living things in seven days.
the story of Adam and Eve symbolizes the basic ideas for the Hebrews religion.
Prophet= Someone who receives direct communication with God and passes his word on to other people.
Their God would again and again show his willingness to make sacred agreements with human-kind.
This willingness is what distinguished the Hebrews Deity from all others- most ancient peoples worshiped gods who changed their minds on a whim, helping or hurting people depending on what suited their needs at the time.
The God of the Hebrews was more likely to judge people fairly.
They believed that if they followed the 10 commandments they would go to heaven.
The Sabbath day(7th day of the week) was holy and they could not do any work on Sunday
Priests= Someone who interpreted religious law, settled disputes, blessed the Israelites and cursed lawbreakers. Hebrews Religion Even though the Bible clearly states that the Israelites were to only worship one God, it also tells stories of them worshiping Gods such as Baal, Astarte, Asherah and others.
When King Solomon built the temple it was the most important center of worship in the land.
But when Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon conquered Judah he destroyed the temple and exiled most of the Hebrews.
Without the temple, they could not sacrifice animals so they had to develop new rituals that focused on prayer, the Sabbath and holy texts.
The name of God was translated to Jehovah.
Yahweh= God The only religions in the ancient world were polytheistic,as they worshiped many gods (sometimes many thousands of deities)
Conversely, the Hebrew's religion was monotheistic, believing in one, almighty God, who was referred to as Yahweh.
Religion may not seem like an addition to the world, but the unprecedented Jewish faith led to many religions, such as Christianity. Abraham Canaan is a narrow coastal strip between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean shore. It is only 70 mi. across at its widest point, and is a patchwork of rocky hills, grassy slopes, fertile plains and arid steppes. The Jordan river runs length-wise down the land.
It had a varying climate from extreme heat in the summer to a damp chill in the winter.
Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel's land today was called Canaan in Biblical times.
From east to west, it stretched 30-70 miles inland. From north to south, it stretched 250 miles.
The Arabian and Syrian deserts separate Canaan from Mesopotamia.
Canaan was a trading route, a buffer zone, a battlefield, a campsite, and a market.
Canaan suffered from unpredictable droughts, locusts, and earthquakes.
Canaanite pastures were suitable for grazing sheep and goats.
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