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Pollen allergies

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by

Iva Kacarska

on 14 November 2013

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Transcript of Pollen allergies

Urban Trees
Conflict
Amenity purposes vs. Allergies

Tree Allergy
Proposed solutions
-conclusion-
Increase Biodiversity
- lessen the impact
Avoid monospecific
concentrations
Plant more female trees
- Gender Equality
Reduce cross-reactivity between different pollen types
Bloom calendar - plan bloom
timing between species
Mindful of genus and family
diversity
Avoid & control invasive
species
Moderate & careful control
when planting exotics
*Exotic & Invasive Species
*Botanical Sexism
Management & Maintenance
Public Health
conflict elements

Highly pollen affective
Arboriculture
"Good / Bad" Trees
Side effects
Question
Pollen
Solution - Minimize Allergic Effects
~Retain Amenity Purposes~
Urban Landscapes
THE END
THANK YOU
Side effects
* Biodiversity
Over abundance of few species
Favor pollution tolerant species
High resistant to urban environment conditions
*Pollen Sources
Large concentrated pollen sources
Dense mono-specific pollen
Pollen chimneys & Hedges
Exotic

Introduced for ornamental purposes
Pollinosis in regional off season
Increasing allergic responses
Potential in attracting organism
Invasive species

Accidental or deliberate introduction
Potential for "conquering"
Sometimes highly allergenic
Climate change scenarios
Fruit production: litter, odor, slippery ground
Male Plants are favored over females
For polygamous species: bred for mostly male flowers
Planning doesn't consider allergies
Current practice favors monospecific populations
Neglected green spaces, wastelands & 3rd spaces
Botanical Sexism
Male flowers everywhere> High amounts of pollen
*Management & Maintenance
Beyond capacity & budgets of local authorities
*Climate Change
Affect the starting blooming season for each species differently
Dry weather spreads pollen quickly
Late freeze delays tree pollination
Rain washes pollen from the air
Rain adverse effect:
in fall/winter it increases pollination amounts,
in spring can increase pollen production
Sources of pollen emission
Biodiversity
Cross reactions
*Cross Reactions
& Interactions
Air pollution interactions
Related to pan-allergens
Developed sensitivity to one source may transfer to other source
Main reason for high allergy rates in cities
Increases allergenic potential of pollen
CO2 has caused pollen increase in some species
Pollen dimensions
20-30µm, max 150µm in some conifer species
Entomophilous species produce frequently bigger & heavier
Anemophilous produce large quantities
*Proximity Pollinosis
Proximity Pollinosis
Close proximity to source causes contact
Insect pollinated plants can cause allergy
Plants close to home, work, throughways

Cupressaceae (junipers,cypress)
Betulaceae (birch,alder,hazel)
Platanaceae (plane tree)
Fagaceae (beech,oak,chestnut)
Umaceae (elm,hackberry)
Moraceae (mulberry,paper mulberry)
Juglandaceae (walnut,hickory)
Salicaceae (poplar,willow)
Aceraceae (maple)
Oleaceae (ash,olive,privet)
within genus little difference in toxicity
List of Genus in
Descending order of Toxicity
The spread depends on:
wind
rainfall
atmospheric humidity
presence of barriers (ex.vegetation or buildings)
Meteorological factors influence the timing & duration of the pollen season as well as the total pollen count
A tree needs almost 20years
to reach maturity
Birch Cedar Pine Oak
Genetically modified trees
"GM Trees"
Other benefits :
Improve resistance to pests
& diseases
Low temperature
Salt and drought stress tolerance
More efficient-biofuels & raw material
Sterile trees can be produced faster using genetics methods
Higher grow rate
Climate change resilient
Gene stability over time
Recombined protein in the DNA
Regulation on flowering date
Pollen with new genetic
modification
Sterile trees

Genetic ablation- precess of expressing a cytotoxic gene under the control of a tightly regulated promoter
Bernase H102E
Diphteria toxin A
Transgenic trees
(angiosperms and gymnoperms)
Our PROPOSITION
Iva Kacarska
&
Victor Gabi Miranda
Climate change scenarios
Affect the starting blooming season for each species differently
Dry weather spreads pollen quickly
Late freeze delays tree pollination
Rain washes pollen from the air
Rain adverse effect:
in fall/winter it increases pollination amounts,
in spring can increase pollen production
Avoid dense pollen sources - respect planting distances
Trees that grow above human height
Distance between plantings and buildings & pathways

Trees that produce less pollen
Trees with short bloom period
Allergy friendly trees
Trees attracting birds - fruits
Plant more colorful flowering trees to attract insects for pollination - entomophilous
Active consultation with botanists

Don't forget 3rd landscape
Proper maintenance of green spaces
Establish & follow planning & design guidelines
Minimize particulate pollution
OPALs & internet resources
Weather analysis & pollen forecasts
Public education in schools
Pollen grains are fine dust that plant typically release in spring. They carry the plant's DNA from stamen, (male part of the plant), to the pistil (female part), in the process known as POLLINATION -this makes fertilization and reproduction possible.
Self-pollination
Without pollination
Anemophilous
Entomophilous
Polygamous plants
Monoecious plants
Dioecious Plants
Polygamo-dioecious
Monitor the pollen count-daily measurement of the number of pollen grains present in one cubic foot of air
.
Pollen grains carry
30-40 different proteins


they release these proteins
-in contact-
This exposes the proteins to the immune system
in the blood vessels of the mucous membranes.
nasal passages/eye membranes
Amenity purpose for the urban society - bringing satisfaction to the citizens ~/~ and in the same time arose a conflict that requires closer attention and a plan set in motion.
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