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Ch. 1 HUMANS TRY TO CONTROL NATURE
Transcript of Ch. 1 HUMANS TRY TO CONTROL NATURE
The development of agriculture and technology caused an increase in populations and the growth of a settled way of life, laying foundations for civilizations.
Early Advances in Technology and Art
The Beginnings of Agriculture
Villages Grow and Prosper
Old Stone Age- Nomads-highly mobile people who moved from place to place searching for food
Hunters-Gatherers: Nomadic groups who depended on hunting animals and collecting plant foods
Prehistoric hunter-gatherers increased food supply by inventing tools
ex. Spears (longer throws, digging sticks-pry plants loose, knives, fish hooks, harpoons, chisel, bone needles)
Technological Revolution-stone, wood, bone- fashion more than 100 tools.
Early history- bands of 25-70 people
Men-hunters and Women-gatherers
10,000 years ago-women may have scattered seeds near camp
Neolithic Revolution-agricultural revolution, beginning of farming
Food gathering---> food producing
Causes of Agricultural Revolution
Early Farming Methods
Domestication of Animals-
Agriculture in Jarmo
Change in climate, rising temperatures, longer growing seasons, drier land for cultivating wild grasses.
Farming helped the population boom, steady source of food-grain
Slash-and-burn farming- cut trees/grasses to clear fields, ashes fertilized the soil
Farmers planted crops for a year or two, then moved land
-Zagros Mountains in N.E. Iraq
- birthplace of agriculture, 9000 years ago
-pioneered new way of life
Robert Braidwood-archeologist in 1950s
Neolithic people in many parts of the world switched to agriculture around the same time
•Africa-Nile River-wheat, barley
•China (8000 years ago) Yellow River Huang He- cultivated millet
100 years later—domesticated wild rice Chang Jiang River
•Mexico/Central America-corn, beans squash
•Peru-Central Andes-tomatoes, sweet potatoes, white potatoes
1958-discovered agricultural village, “forked mound”
Plain in Central Turkey (near Konya) and volcano
Covered 32 acres 8,000 years ago-home to 5,000-6,000 people in 1,000 dwellings
Settled life--Rich, well watered soil, produced large crops of wheat barley and peas
Raised sheep and cattle, Surplus of food, highly skilled workers (potters/weavers), Obsidian products-mirrors, jewelry, knives for trade, Prosperity varied culture life, Colorful wall paintings, Religious shrines—mother goddess (controlled grain)
Negative drawbacks of agricultural village: floods, fire, drought, other natural disasters destroy villages
Diseases-malaria, Jealous neighbors/bands
Permanent settlements provided residents with opportunities for fulfillment-
work, art, and leisure.
Neolithic Ice Man
No longer just survivors...
Artists and Inventors....
Artistic Expression in Paleolithic Age
-Necklaces of seashells, lion teeth, bear claws
-Ground mammoth tusks turned to beads, realistic sculptures of animals
-Stone Age people on all continents created cave paintings
France and Spain-life like images of animals.
-Colored paints-charcoal, mud, animal blood
-Engravings or painted scenes
-Understanding plants led to farming
-Knowledge of wild animals let to training or domestication (horses, dogs, goats etc)
-Farmers-Human made enclosures—gradually tame them
-Pastoral nomads/herders also tamed animals
1991- two German hikers discovered
the ice man (5000 years ago).
Took more than ten years to figure out
how he died.
Toolkit had 6 foot longbow, with deer
case and 14 arrows. Stick with antler tip. Small dagger. Copper ax, medicine bag.