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Causes of American Revolution
Transcript of Causes of American Revolution
The American Revolution began due to many different issues they had with British rule. Some of these included taxation without representation in Parliament and invasion of personal property and privacy.
The Revolutionary War did not begin without reason. With every law passed by Parliament, the relationship between the colonists and the British began to feel like more of a monarchy than two simple trading partners. Parliament began to tax colonists as if the colonies were already a part of the British empire. Some of the more well-known laws that allowed the British to trespass and tax the colonists include:
Soon enough, the colonists had enough of the taxes from the British. Individuals and groups began to form in order to protest and rebel against the British's rulings.
One such group was the Sons of Liberty. They were a group of shopkeepers and artisans who were originally called themselves The Loyal Nine. They began to plan rebellion against the Stamp Act in the summer of 1765. As the group became bigger, they became known as the Sons of Liberty.
Unrest in the Colonies
After the colonists began to realize that the British thought that they were the rulers of the colonists, the colonists began to plan to unify under one government.
The Albany Plan, a plan to bring the colonies to follow one main government (in comparison to many smaller governments per state), was one that was never carried out. However, it did bring the colonists one step closer to coming and working together to defeat the British.
Trade in the colonies also changed from before British influence.
The British practiced mercantilism, a theory that states that trade brings in wealth for the government and that the amount of trade is stimulated by good business transactions; it also states that a government should encourage this by protectionism.
Protectionism is a way for the government to help domestic trade prosper by taxing imports from other countries.
French & Indian War
The fur trades began in the 1500's between the Indians and the Europeans. In the 1600's it expanded to the English settlers trading with the Indians in what is now the New England area. By the 1700's the trade had grown so big it was that the French and the British were bitterly competing for trading rights in certain regions.
In the 1750s, France and Britain fought against each other in a war in Europe. The war slowly spread to North America because the British wanted to take over French land in North America and they also wanted to gain control of France's trade with the Native Americans.
Writs of Assistance: Search warrants were issued to assist the British with enforcing navigation and trade laws. Authorized officers were also allowed to search any house for smuggled goods without having to specify which one.
Stamp Act: Passed on March 22, 1765 and required colonists to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they use.
Quartering Act: Passed in 1765 and it required colonists to house and feed British soldiers whether they wanted to or not
In the case of Britain and the colonies, protectionism was applied when the British tried to gain money out of the colonies by taxing imports from foreign countries so that the colonists would only purchase products from Britain.
However very few people monitored the colonists' imports and exports due to the salutary neglect, which was the idea that there were no strict regulations or regulators in the colonies due to the fact that it was so expensive to send British troops overseas.
Throughout all this, the colonies tried to reach the favorable balance of trade which is when a region, country, or nation's exports have a higher value than its imports (more money coming in than going out).
Declaratory Act: This act declared that the colonies were "dependent" on Britain and that Parliament was allowed to pass laws that the colonists HAD to follow.
Navigation Act: This act allowed Britain to regulate colonial trade and allowed them to collect taxes.
Unrest in the Colonies (Con't)
An individual who dared to speak up against the British was John Peter Zenger. He was a German who wrote about the corruption of the British government. He was later put on trial which was important in developing the freedom of the press.
French & Indian War (Con't)
Here's an informational video.... Watch it.
French and Indian Trade
The French started trade with Indians, The Indians would give them animal fur (mostly beaver) in exchange for weapons and tools.
During the 1700's the French and British fur traders competed over the region between the Allegheny Mountains and the Mississippi River which led to the French and Indian War in 1754
Proclamation of 1763
British won the French and Indian War in 1763 and took ove the colonial empire France had in North America
Royal proclamation after the end of the French and Indian War
Closed off frontier to colonial expansion