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Reporting Category 3 United States STAAR Review
Transcript of Reporting Category 3 United States STAAR Review
Government & Citizenship
United States History
10 Questions From This Category Will Be On The STAAR Test
Changes Over Time with Role of the Government
Three Branches of the Federal Government
Impact of Constitutional Issues on American Society
Expansion of the Democratic Process
Donna Sue Perkins
Some Material was adapted from a TAKS review prepared by Kip Harmon, Revised by Scott Crossno and Laura Ewing
Assembled by Pearland and Dawson High School Social Studies Departments
Alexis D. Tocqueville’s Five Values Crucial to America’s Success
Significant Political and Social Leaders
To ensure this, FDR turned to the radio, and in the first of his many "fireside chats," convinced the American people the crisis was over and that their deposits—backed by the newly established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) — were safe.
June 16 Farm Credit Act
The legacy of social welfare programs for the destitute and underprivileged would ring through the remainder of the 1900s.
World War I A major effort to promote national unity accompanied America's involvement (1917-1918) in World War I. As a part of this effort, Congress enacted a number of laws severely restricting 1st Amendment freedoms to curb antiwar dissent. In 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act, which set stiff penalties for uttering and circulating “false” statements intended to interfere with the war effort. Any effort to cause unrest in the military forces or to interfere with the draft was forbidden. In 1918, Congress passed a Sedition Act—the first such act in 120 years—which made it a crime to interfere with the sale of government securities (war bonds) and also prohibited saying or publishing anything disrespectful to the government of the United States. In Schenck v. United States the Court upheld Schenck's conviction, declaring the Espionage Act a reasonable and acceptable limitation on speech in time of war.
Great Depression In 1935-36, the Court struck down eight of FDR's New Deal programs, including the National Recovery Act (NRA) and the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA). As a result of this reaction, several constitutional amendments were introduced into Congress in 1936, including one that would require a two-thirds vote of the Court whenever an act of Congress was declared unconstitutional; another that would permit Congress to revalidate federal laws previously declared unconstitutional by repassing them with a two-thirds vote of both houses, and even one that would abolish altogether Court's power to declare federal laws unconstitutional. Roosevelt’s attempt to increase the number of Supreme Court justices from 9 to 13 would have created a shift in the “separation of powers” and “checks and balances.
World War II
Executive Order 9066 denied 1st Amendment rights to Japanese Americans. The 1943 decision in Korematsu v. United States government lawyers argued that detention was a military necessity.In a 6‐to‐3 decision in the case of Korematsu v. United States, the Supreme Court justices sided with the President and Congress. With this decision, all three branches of government had endorsed the mass
Incarceration. President Ronald Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, which
apologized for the injustice of the World War II incarceration and
authorized funding for reparations and education, August 10, 1988.
1960’s Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966)Two Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s supported the rights of persons accused of committing crimes. The Court decided that Gideon was denied a fair trial and ruled that every state must provide counsel for people accused of crimes who cannot afford to hire their own. In its ruling the Supreme Court required that police officers, when making arrests, must give what are now known as Miranda warnings — that suspects have the right to remain silent, that anything they say may be used against them, that they can have a lawyer present during questioning, and that a lawyer will be provided if they cannot afford one
9/11 Presidential Executive Order of November 13, 2001, which authorized indefinite detention without due process of law, as a violation of international law and the U.S. Constitution. The President’s authority to establish military commissions without congressional approval was successfully challenged in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. In response to the habeas petition of a military commission defendant, the Supreme Court ruled in June 2006 that the President overstepped his authority when creating military commissions inconsistent with domestic and international law.
Effects of Political Scandals
Event Description Views of US Citizens Concerning Trust in Leaders & Government
Teapot Dome Scandal 1920s surrounding the secret leasing of federal oil reserves by the secretary of the interior, Albert Bacon Fall., Fall secretly granted to Harry F. Sinclair of the Mammoth Oil Company exclusive rights to the Teapot Dome (Wyoming) reserves (April 7, 1922). He granted similar rights to Edward L. Doheny of Pan American Petroleum Company for the Elk Hills and Buena Vista Hills reserves in California (1921–22). In return for the leases, Fall received large cash gifts and no-interest “loans.” “Teapot Dome” entered the American political vocabulary as a synonym for governmental corruption; the scandal had little long-term effect on the Republican Party.
Watergate In May 1972, as evidence would later show, members of Nixon’s Committee to Re-Elect the President broke into the Democratic National Committee’s Watergate headquarters, stole copies of top-secret documents and bugged the office’s phones. Nixon arranged to provide hundreds of thousands of dollars in “hush money” to the burglars. Then, he and his aides hatched a plan to instruct the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to impede the FBI’s investigation of the crime. This was a more serious crime than the break-in: It was an abuse of presidential power and a deliberate obstruction of justice.
Nixon’s abuse of presidential power had a negative effect on American political life, creating an atmosphere of cynicism and distrust. While many Americans had been deeply dismayed by the outcomes of the Vietnam War, Watergate added further disappointment in a national climate already soured by the difficulties and losses of the past decade.
Bill Clinton’s Impeachment The House of Representatives approved, 228 to 206, the first article of impeachment, accusing Mr. Clinton of perjury for misleading a Federal grand jury last Aug. 17 about the nature of his relationship with a White House intern, Monica S. Lewinsky. The grand jury testimony took place due to allegations of sexual harassment from another woman, Paula Jones. Impeachment decree, William Jefferson Clinton has undermined the integrity of his office, has brought disrepute on the Presidency, has betrayed his trust as President, and has acted in a manner subversive of the rule of law and justice, to the manifest injury of the people of the United States. The Senate did not pass the House’s impeachment.
Role of Contemporary Government Legislation
Legislative Act Private Sector Public Sector
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
An act of Congress enacted in 1977 with the intention of encouraging depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of surrounding communities (particularly low and moderate income neighborhoods). federal regulatory agencies examine banking institutions for CRA compliance, and take this information into consideration when approving applications for new bank branches or for mergers or acquisitions
reduced discriminatory credit practices against low-income neighborhoods, a practice known as redlining
US Patriot Act of 2001
The title of the act is a ten-letter acronym (USA PATRIOT) that stands for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001
Gave government investigators greater authority to track e-mail and to eavesdrop on telecommunications
U.S. citizens could suffer electronic eavesdropping.
American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009
Commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act, was an economic stimulus package enacted by the 111th United States Congress in February 2009 and signed into law on February 17,2009.
the legislation mandates energy efficiency improvements in government-owned properties
the private market to participate in such improvements voluntarily with the incentives presented by tax credits
Evaluation of United States Participation in International Organizations & Treaties
Organization/Treaty Pros Cons
United Nations The U.N. process forces us to use diplomacy and enhance relationships.
Different perspectives of other nations can show us our actions may be wrong.
Anti-Americanism will decline with positive communication & interaction.
Member countries act in their own interest rather than the common good, leading to bad decisions
Debate takes too much time and leads to inaction.
The tough but necessary actions are often the most risky and unpopular.
The veto and chairmanship procedures of the U.N. administration are questionable
International Space Station Agreement
Collaboration with Scientist around the world
Increases interest in STEM Education
New Technology & Cures for Diseases High cost ($100 billion)
Longevity of Space Lab – temporary
Current Orbit (accommodated for Russia) restrict some experiments
General Agreement of Tariffs & Trade Benefits from Increased Exports and Imports
Provide a way for the US to help various countries for foreign policy reasons while having little effect on the United States
making headway toward the goal of free trade
Stimulate progress because countries not party to the free trade agreements may fear being left behind while countries that are party to such agreements expand trade with the United States
could divert the world from multilateral negotiations and lead to the development of rival trading blocs centered on the United States, European Union or Japan
FTAs between small developing countries and such large entities as the United States or the EU are likely to leave in place some trade barriers that multilateral negotiations in the absence of FTAs would eliminate
North American Free Trade Agreement
Benefits from Increased Exports and Imports
Reductions in trade barriers increase the competitiveness of imports
Promote goodwill among countries
reductions in trade barriers increase the competitiveness of import might divert the world away from multilateral trade liberalization and lead to the development of large, competing trading blocks
Impact on the Relationship Between the Legislative & Executive Branches of the Government
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was a pair of alleged attacks by North Vietnamese gunboats on two American destroyers in August of 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin. The incident was utilized by the Johnson Administration to publicly justify and escalate military operations in the region. Later research, including a report released in 2005 by the National Security Agency, indicates that the second attack did not occur.
It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
War Powers Act Federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress. The resolution was adopted in the form of a United States Congress joint resolution following a period of growing congressional concern over the unilateral presidential use of military force. Among other things, the legislation, which was passed over a veto by President Nixon, required that a president terminate combat in a foreign territory within sixty to ninety days unless there was congressional authorization to continue. It also sought to provide presidents with the leeway to respond to attacks or other emergencies. The measure was intended to provide more coordination between the executive and legislative branches on the use of force.
Significant Supreme Court Cases
• 1803 Marbury v. Madison— was the first time a law passed by Congress was declared unconstitutional
• 1857 Dred Scott v. Sanford—Declared that a slave was not a citizen, and that Congress could not outlaw slavery in U.S. territories
• 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson—Said that racial segregation was legal; allowed for “separate but equal” facilities
• 1946 Mendez v. Westminister – segregation of Mexican & Mexican American students “Mexican schools” was unconstitutional
• 1948 Degado v. Bastrop ISD – segregation of Hispanic children in public schools was unconstitutional
• 1950 Sweatt v. Painter – attempt to create a segregated UT Law School was unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause
• 1954 Brown v. Board of Education—Made racial segregation in schools illegal; reversed decision of Plessv. Ferguson
• 1954 Hernandez v. Texas – Mexican-Americans and other racial groups have equal protection under the 14th Amendment
• 1966 Miranda v. Arizona —stated that criminal suspects must be informed of their rights before being questioned by the police.
• Tinker v. Des Moines – Extends 1st Amendment right to students; freedom of speech includes free expression
• 1972 Wisconsin v. Yoder – Amish children are exempt from compulsory education beyond 8th grade because it violates parent’s right to freedom of religion
• 1973 Roe v. Wade—Made abortion legal
• 1973 White v. Regester – Ruled Texas redistricting in 1970 was discriminatory against different groups in various districts
• 1993 Edgewood ISD v. Kirby – Texas case ending discrimination against poor school districts; redistributes property taxes equally across the state from richer district to poorer districts
• 2003 Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger—Ruled that colleges can, under certain conditions, consider race and ethnicity in admissions.
Historical Reasons Why the Constitution has Been Amended
It is a measure of the success of the Constitution's drafters that after the adoption in 1791 of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights, the original document has been changed only 17 times.
Only six of those amendments have dealt with the structure of government. With the exception of Prohibition and its revocation, the main thrust of the other amendments has been to protect or expand the rights already guaranteed in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
The first ten amendments were added in 1791 and later amendments introduced such far-reaching changes as ending slavery, creating national guarantees of due process and individual rights, granting women the vote, and providing for direct popular election of senators.
In 1793, the Supreme Court angered states by accepting jurisdiction in a case where an individual sued the state of Georgia. To ensure that did not happen again, Congress and the states added the 11th Amendment in 1798.
The 12th Amendment, ratified in 1804, had electors vote separately for president and vice president. Until then, the candidate with the most Electoral College votes became president, and the runner up, vice president.
Slavery generated four amendments. The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865, abolished slavery. The 14th Amendment was adopted in 1868 to protect the civil rights of former slaves. It granted citizenship to all people born in the United States. Two years later, the 15th Amendment declared that the right to vote shall not be abridged on account of race or previous condition of servitude.
The 16th Amendment (1913) authorized an income tax, which the Supreme Court had declared unconstitutional in 1895.
The 17th Amendment required direct election of senators.
In 1919, the states approved the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. In 1933, Congress proposed an amendment to repeal Prohibition. The 21st Amendment was ratified in just 286 days.
The 19th Amendment extended the vote to women.
The 20th Amendment reduced the time between the election of national officials and their assumption of office.
The 22nd Amendment, adopted in 1951, limited presidents to two terms.
The 23rd Amendment, enacted in 1961, allowed residents of the District of Columbia to vote in presidential elections.
The 24th Amendment, ratified in 1964, prohibited a poll tax in federal elections.
The 25th Amendment (1967) provided a system for selecting a new vice president after the death or resignation of a president. It also established a system to deal with the possibility that a president might become disabled.
The 26th Amendment, adopted in 1971, extended the vote to 18 year-olds.
The 27th Amendment, ratified in 1992, prevents Congress from giving itself an immediate pay increase. It says that a change in pay can only go into effect after the next congressional election.
Arriving in the United States in 1831, French statesman and writer Alexis de Tocqueville (1805—1859) spent nine months studying the country’s society, economy, and political system. Returning to France, he produced Democracy in America, one of the classic studies of the American character and way of life. Identified 5 characteristics that set Americans apart:
the power or scope to act as one pleases
belief that all people are created equal
a social theory favoring freedom of action for individuals over collective or state control
political doctrine in which one sides with "the people" against "the elite
a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering
Methods of Expanding the Right to Participate in the Democratic Process
Lobbying act of persuading legislators to vote for legislation that favors an advocacy group
Non-violent Protesting MLK's march to Montgomery allowed citizens to stand with others to persuade the country to pay attention to the issues
Litigation Court rulings could result in voters having more opportunities to vote
Amendments to the US Constitution 15th/19th Amendments - extended the opportunity for African-Americans and women to have the right to vote
Achieving Equality of Political Rights
extended the vote to women, 1920
prohibited a poll tax in federal elections, 1964
extended the vote to 18 year-olds, 1971
American Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 Granted citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States, 1924
Contributions of Significant Political & Social Leaders in the United States
Industrialist who made a fortune in railroad & steel in the late 1800’s through vertical consolidation (Bessemer Process); as a philanthropist, he gave away $350 million as part of the Gospel of Wealth (doctrine which believed it was the duty of the wealthy to use their money to improve the conditions for all
Attorney for NAACP who successfully argued Brown v. Board of Education case; First African American on the Supreme Court in 1967; established a record for supporting the voiceless American
Christian Preacher & Evangelist who became outspoken critic of segregation & supporter of civil rights movement; Also, counseled majority of Presidents from Truman through Obama
Successfully revives conservative values in the US but loses 1964 presidential election ; United States Senator from Arizona (1953-1965, 1969-1987); considered one of the founders of the conservative movement
Sandra Day O’Connor
First Woman Justice on the US Supreme Court in 1981
First Lady President of Bill Clinton; Only First lady to be elected to a position in the US government after being First Lady; Came the closest to winning a presidential nomination of any woman in history; served as Secretary of State under President Obama
FDR's response to this unprecedented crisis was to initiate the "New Deal" — a series of economic measures designed to alleviate the worst effects of the depression, reinvigorate the economy, and restore the confidence of the American people in their banks and other key institutions.
The New Deal was orchestrated by a core group of FDR advisors brought in from academia and industry known as the "Brains Trust" who, in their first "hundred days" in office, helped FDR enact fifteen major laws.
One of the most significant of these was the Banking Act of 1933, which finally brought an end to the panic that gripped the nation's banking system. The success of the Banking Act, depended in large measure on the willingness of the American people to once again place their faith—and money—in their local banks.
New Deal Legislation (1933)
March 9 Emergency Banking Act
March 20 Government Economy Act
March 22 Beer-Wine Revenue Act
March 31 Creation of Civilian Conservation Corps
April 19 Abandonment of Gold Standard
May 12 Federal Emergency Relief Act
May 12 Agricultural Adjustment Act
May 12 Emergency Farm Mortgage Act
May 18 Tennessee Valley Authority Act
May 27 Securities Act
June 5 Abrogation of Gold Payment Clause
June 13 Home Owners Loan Act
June 16 Glass-Steagall Banking Act
June 16 National Industrial Recovery Act
June 16 Emergency Railroad Transportation Act
The New Deal itself created millions of jobs and sponsored public works projects that reached most every county in the nation.
Federal protection of bank deposits ended the dangerous trend of bank runs.
Abuse of the stock market was more clearly defined and monitored to prevent collapses in the future.
The Social Security system was modified and expanded to remain one of the most popular government programs for the remainder of the century.
For the first time in peacetime history the federal government assumed responsibility for managing the economy.
Constitutional Issues Raised by Federal Governmental Policy Changes