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First Sino-Japanese War
Transcript of First Sino-Japanese War
•30 to 40 years prior to the war, there were many minor conflicts that built up pressure between China and Japan over Korea
•At one point, a famine caused the Korean government to fail.
•The people rioted, and overthrew the government's palace.The people then turned on the Japanese trade.
•The Japanese fled to Japan reporting that Japanese interests were being attacked, so Japan sent 4 warships and a battalion of troops. In turn, China sent 4,500 troops to counter their forces. Chinese Commanders and Leaders Events During the War The Chinese suffered a severe loss, but on the other hand, it was a major propaganda victory for Japan. It is estimated that over 900 people died in the sinking of the Kow-shing. Citation Naval Battle Early Conflicts Japanese Commanders and Leaders Emperor Meji Ito Hirobumi Yamagata Aritomo Ito Sukeyuki Guangxu Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Deng Shichang Ding Ruchang Conflict in Korea Fall of Lüshunkou Fall of Weihaiwei 3 November 1852 – 30 July 1912 He was the 122nd emperor of Japan. Proclaimed Crown Prince on November 11, 1860. Became emperor Meji on September 12, 1868 There were contradictory about the young emperor. Not sure if he supported the war or not. Nhut Truong Joshua Widrick Josh Richard Born August 14th 1871-died November 14th 1908 His given name when he was born was Zaitian; he ascended to the throne at age four and took the name Guangxu. In his childhood he was mentored by Weng Tonghe, they became close and Guangxu became quite fond of him. The empress Dowager Cixi adopted him as son. Emperor Meiji, suffering from diabetes, nephritis, and gastroenteritis, died of uremia. 16 October 1841 – 26 October 1909 Was a samurai of Choōshu domain, Japanese statesman, four time Prime Minister of Japan (the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th), genro and Resident-General of Korea. His father Hayashi Juzo was the adopted son of Mizui Buhei who was an adopted son of Ito Yaemon's family. He negotiated the Treaty of Shimonoseki in March 1895 with his ailing foreign minister Mutsu Munemitsu. Ito was assassinated by Korean nationalist An Jung-geun. 14 June 1838 – 1 February 1922 He was a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army. Got elected twice for Prime Minister of Japan. Yamagata Aritomo can be seen as the father of Japanese militarism. He was the War Minister and Commanding General during the First Sino-Japanese War. 20 May 1843 – 16 January 1914 Born 29 November 1835 – Died 15 November 1908 Born 1849 – Died 17 September 1894 He was a military officer in the late Qing dynasty He participated in the Battle of Yalu River, on September 17th 1894. 18 November 1836 - 12 February 1895 Ding participated in the battle of Yalu River. The battle didn't go so well, he lost five out of his ten ships and his own ship was even hit. Ding was ordered to retreat at the battle of Lushunkou, so his ships took shelter in the Weihaiwei harbor. But the Japanese took control of the outer wall, and got inside the harbor. Potato Ding committed suicide by overdose on opium. He died in the battle of Yalu river Historians described her as a despot and villain responsible for the fall of the Dynasty Cixi was known for her ability to read and write the Han Chinese language Instead of using the money she to build a new fleet, she uses the money for her own pleasure Major-General Ōshima Yoshimasa led a troop of 4,000 to go toward Asan Bay to face 3,500 Chinese troops stationed at Seonghwan Station east of Asan and Kongju. Outnumbered, the Chinese eventually lost ground to the Japanese and fled to Pyongyang. In Pyongyang, the retreated force joined the reinforcement that was sent from China. Even though the Chinese defense was strong, they were outmaneuvered by an unexpected attack from the rear of their formation. Sinking of the Kow-shing On July 25, 1894, Japanese patrolling cruiser came across a Chinese cruiser and gunboat. These vessels were going to Asan in order to meet another Chinese gunboat, which was escorting a transport toward Asan. The Kow-shing was a British Merchant ship owned by the Indochina Steam Navigation Company of London. It was contracted by the Qing government to ferry troops to Korea. The Kow-shing was intercepted by a Japanese cruiser and was eventually captured. The sinking of the Kow-shing almost caused a major conflict between Japan and Great Britain, but it didn't because of the International Law regarding the treatment of mutineers. Defeat of the Beiyang Fleet The Imperial Japanese Navy destroyed eight out of ten warships of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet off the mouth of the Yalu River on September 17, 1894. The Chinese fleet was bigger and armed with bigger guns. The Japanese fleet was much faster. Even though the Chinese fleet outnumbered the Japanese, they couldn't win due to the lack of training and low ammunition. He was a career officer and admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy He's the son of a samurai of the Satsuma Domain he became the first Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet and won several naval battles against the Chinese Empire's Beiyang Fleet Li Hongzhang February 15, 1823-November 7, 1901 Put together most of China's military. Li lead the larger part of China's army, but his rivals and political enemies would not aid him with thier troops. When signing the treaty to cease fire, a Japanese assassin fired at Li and wounded him below the left eye, permanently damaging his face. He was one of the first generation of modern naval officers trained in China Invasion of Manchuria The Chinese retreated from Korea after their defeat in Pyongyang and has build up their defense at the Yalu River near Jiuliancheng. On the night of October 24, 1894, the Japanese successfully crossed the Yalu River undetected. As the Japanese begin their attack, they realizes that the guards had already abandon their post. The Imperial Japanese Army split into two groups one marching north to Qing ancestral capital of Mukden, and the other march south toward Lüshunkou. The defenders of Lüshunkou received orders to withdraw to Weihaiwei rather than defending their base. With the Chinese retreating, the Japanese quickly took hold of Lüshunkou. There, they began killing mass numbers of the city's Chinese civilians. This event came to know as the Port Arthur Massacre After the loss in Lüshunkou, the Chinese retreated into Weihaiwei to set up their defense. Only to be outflanked by the Japanese ground forces. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Sino-Japanese_War The Japanese launched its attack on the landward fortifications to the south and east of the town The attack was hampered do the to severe winter conditions with temperature as low as minus 26 degrees Celsius Eventually Weihaiwei fell to the Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki Was signed on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. Article 1: China recognizes definitively the full and complete independence and autonomy of Korea. Articles 2 & 3: China cedes to Japan in perpetuity and full sovereignty of the Penghu group, Taiwan and the eastern portion of the bay of Liaodong Peninsula together with all fortifications, arsenals and public property. Article 4: China agrees to pay to Japan as a war indemnity the sum of 200,000,000 Kuping taels Article 5: China opens Shashih, Chungking, Soochow and Hangchow to Japan. Moreover, China is to grant Japan most-favored-nation treatment. Strength and Numbers Casualties Qing Empire Empire of Japan Beiyang Army
Beiyang Navy 630,000 men Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Navy 240,616 men 35,000 dead or wounded Qing Empire Empire of Japan 1,132 dead,
285 died of wounds
11,894 died of disease History Battle of Pungdo Battle of the Yalu River Battle of Seonghwan Battle of Jiuliancheng