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The British Empire 1583-1783
Transcript of The British Empire 1583-1783
Slavery was a very important economic component of the British Empire. Until slavery was abolished in 1807, Britain was responsible for 3.5 million slaves from Africa to North America. Britain formed one third of the triangular trade.
Conflicts and battles
Competition with France: British military gained for Britain two of the most important parts of its empire—Canada and India. Fighting between the British and French colonies in North America was endemic in the first half of the 18th century. Treaty of Paris of 1763, which ended the Seven Years’ War (known as the French and Indian War in North America),
biggest colonial empire
Sienna, Georgia, Hanna
The British Empire 1583-1783
England's first permanent settlement in the Americas was founded in 1607 in Jamestown, led by Captain John Smith and managed by the Virginia Company.
The more we study the British Empire, the more we can understand the slave trade between USA and Africa. It was pioneered by the Arabs, the Italians, the Portuguese invented its economic mechanisms, it was run almost entirely by Europeans, and it included full cooperation by many African kings.
1619: the Dutch begin the slave trade between Africa and America
1637: Holland captures Portugal's main trading post in Africa, Elmira
1650: Holland becomes the dominant slave trading country
1700: Britain becomes the dominant slave trading country
What is an Empire?
An empire is a group of countries ruled over by a single monarch or ruling power. An empire doesn't need an "emperor".
The British empire comprised Britain "The Mother Country" and the colonies.
9 Years War:
Fought between King Louis XIV and a European-wide coalition
Primarily fought on mainland Europe
The slave ships were unhygienic and violated basic human rights
An average of one in seven slaves died on the voyage
In 1578, Humphrey Gilbert was sent by Elizabeth I for overseas exploration. A treaty was made between England and Spain was made in 1603 ending hostilities between the two countries. England now stopped preying on the Spanish and began establishing its own colonies. The slave trade over these areas became very profitable and important to the British Economy. This period of time until the loss of the thirteen colonies is known as the First British Empire.
Scaruffi, Peter/ The Origins of the Slave Trade/
N/A, 20 February.2016.
"British Empire." Wikipedia. N/A, 27 Feb. 2016. Web. 20 Feb. 2016.
N/A. "The History." The British Empire. David Le, n.d. Web. 29 Feb. 2016.
"British Empire | Historical State, United Kingdom." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 29 Feb. 2016.
"The British Empire Where the Sun Never Sets." The British Empire. Stephen Luscombe, 1996. Web. 29 Feb. 2016.
A treaty was made between England and Spain was made in 1603 ending conflicts between the two countries.
The first British empire began in the late 16th century and was founded explorers and traders. It was based on an economic relationship between the new colonies and the mother country.
By 1783, Britain had colonies in America and the West Indies. This ‘First British Empire’ ended after the American Revolution.
However, in the 19th century, the British built a second worldwide empire, based on India, and huge conquests in Africa. This empire was the creation of bureaucrats and generals and it was based on a political relationship known as imperialism.
Trade grew larger and larger, by the late 17th century it was an important part of the English economy. People started to respect merchants because of the importance of trade. England was becoming steadily richer at this time. Most of the political power was held by wealthy landowners. Mercantilism was the economic policy for the British Empire. Mercantilism is an economic system where a nation gains wealth by trading with other countries. There is a focus of precious medals like silver and gold. The British government and merchants became partners, they both had the goal of increasing political power and wealth. The government protected it’s merchants by trade barriers and regulations. The Empire attempted to maximize exports and minimize imports in order to gain the most money through trade.
The result of the 9 years war was the treaty of Ryswick (1697)
Treaty of Paris of 1763, which ended the Seven Years’ War (known as the French and Indian War in North America),
The loss of Britain's 13 American Colonies
The thirteen were: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Conflicts within the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies declared independence in 1776 and essentially ended the first British Empire.
• 1607–1625 James I & VI (first)
• 1760–1783 George III (last)