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US History - 32.1 - 32.2 - The Nixon Administratino - Watergate: Nixon's Downfall

USH 32.1 and 32.2


on 15 December 2013

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Transcript of US History - 32.1 - 32.2 - The Nixon Administratino - Watergate: Nixon's Downfall

Nixon's Downfall

President Nixon's involvement in the Watergate scandal forced him to resign from office.
President Nixon and His White House
An Imperial Presidency
Depression, WW II, Cold War make executive most powerful branch
Nixon expands presidential powers, ignores Congress
A Bungled Burglary
Committee to Reelect the President break into Democratic headquarters
Watergate scandal is administration’s attempt to cover up break-in
destroy documents, try to stop investigation, buy burglars’ silence
Washington Post reporters link administration to break-in
White House denies allegations; little public interest in charges
Nixon reelected by landslide over liberal Democrat George McGovern
The Drive Toward Re-election
The Senate Investigates Watergate
Judge John Sirica presides burglars’ trial, thinks did not act alone
Burglar leader James McCord says lied under oath, advisers involved
Nixon dismisses White House counsel John Dean; others resign
Senator Samuel J. Ervin heads investigative committee
The Cover-up Unravels
The Saturday Night Massacre
Special prosecutor Archibald Cox subpoenas tapes; Nixon refuses
Nixon orders Cox fired, attorney general Elliot Richardson refuses
Saturday Night Massacre: Richardson resigns; deputy refuses, fired
Cox’s replacement, Leon Jaworski, also calls for tapes
Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns, revealed he accepted bribes
Nixon nominates, Congress confirms Gerald R. Ford as vice-president
Nixon Releases the Tapes
March 1974, grand jury indicts 7 presidential aides
charges: conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury
Nixon tells TV audience he is releasing edited transcripts
July, Supreme Court rules unanimously Nixon must surrender tapes
The Fall of a President
The President Resigns
House Judiciary Committee approves 3 articles of impeachment
formal accusation of wrongdoing while in office
charges: obstruction of justice, abuse of power, contempt of Congress
Nixon releases tapes; show knows of administration role, cover up
Before full House votes on impeachment, Nixon resigns
The Nixon

President Richard M. Nixon tries to steer the country in a conservative direction and away from federal control.
Nixon's New Conservatism
New Federalism
Richard M. Nixon: decrease size and influence of federal government
New Federalism—give part of federal power to state, local government
Nixon proposes revenue sharing, which becomes law in 1972:
state, local governments now decide how to spend federal money
A New South
Southern Democrats help segregationist George Wallace win 5 states
Nixon: win over Southern Democrats for votes, majority in Congress
Southern strategy—appeal to dislike of desegregation, Supreme Court
Nixon's Southern Strategy
The Causes of Stagflation
Stagflation—combination of high inflation, high unemployment
Inflation result of LBJ’s deficit spending on war, social programs
Unemployment from more international trade, new workers
Rising oil prices, U.S. dependence on foreign oil add to inflation
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) controls prices
Confronting a Stagnant Economy
Kissinger and Realpolitik
Henry Kissinger—national security adviser, later secretary of state
Realpolitik—foreign policy based on power issues, not ideals, morals
Realpolitik calls for U.S. to confront powerful nations, ignore weak
Nixon, Kissinger follow policy of détente—easing Cold War tensions
Nixon's Foreign Policy Triumphs
Welfare Reform
Family Assistance Plan gives family of four a base income
Senate liberals, conservatives defeat bill
New Federalism Wears Two Faces
Nixon backs some social spending increases to win Democratic support
Tries to dismantle some programs, impounds funds for others
courts order release of impounded funds
Law and Order Politics
Nixon moves aggressively to end war, mend divisiveness in country
Begins law and order policies to end riots, demonstrations
sometimes uses illegal tactics
Nixon Slows Integration
To attract white voters in South, Nixon slows desegregation
Supreme Court orders Nixon to comply with Brown ruling
Nixon opposes extension of Voting Rights Act but Congress extends it
Controversy over Busing
Supreme Court rules school districts may bus to end segregation
Students, parents in some cities protest angrily
Nixon goes on national tv to urge Congress to halt busing
A Battle over the Supreme Court
1969, Nixon appoints Warren Burger as chief justice
Also appoints 3 associate justices; makes Court more conservative
Court does not always vote conservative
Nixon Battles Stagflation
Nixon tries different strategies; none have much success
Nixon Visits China
1971, Nixon’s visit to China a huge success; U.S., China agree to:
cooperate over disputes, have scientific, cultural exchange
Takes advantage of rift between China, Soviet Union
Nixon Travels to Moscow
1972, Nixon visits Moscow; he, Brezhnev sign SALT I Treaty:
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks limit missiles to 1972 levels
Foreign policy triumphs, expected Vietnam peace help win reelection
The President’s Men
Nixon has small, loyal group of advisers; like him, desire secrecy
H. R. Haldeman, White House chief of staff
John Ehrlichman, chief domestic adviser
John Mitchell, Nixon’s former attorney general
Startling Testimony
Dean declares Nixon involved in cover-up
Alexander Butterfield says Nixon tapes presidential conversations
The Effects of Watergate
25 members of administration convicted, serve prison terms
Full transcript