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Transcript of Cloud Computing
is a model of software deployment where an
is hosted as a
service provided to customers across the Internet.
It alleviates the burden of
Usually billed based on
Google Apps, iCloud, Dropbox, Prezi
Economics of Innovation Processes
Gianluca Toffoletto, Antonino La Manna, Manon Thomas
WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING
development, deployment and delivery
, enabling service users to have
, convenient and
on-demand network access
to a shared pool of
configurable computing resources
(e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services), that can be
and released with
effort or service-provider interaction. Cloud computing enables cloud services.”
Products and solutions
that are delivered and consumed on demand (utilizing IT Resources & capabilities of Platform) at any time, through any access network (fixed & mobile) using any connected devices and cloud computing technologies.
*: National Institute of Standards and Technology
Types of Cloud Computing services:
Saas (Software as a service)
Paas (Platform as a service)
Iaas (Infrastructure as a service)
provides all of the
required to support the complete life cycle of
and services entirely from the Internet.
may include programming languages and tools for application, interface and database development, storage and testing.
multi tier architecture
no control over the underlying cloud infrastructure
(but has it over the deployed applications and their hosting environment configurations)
Google App Engine, Microsoft Windows Azure
is the delivery of
as an on demand scalable service.
The capabilities provided include provision processing, intra-cloud network connectivity services (e.g. VLAN, firewall…) and other
fundamental computing resources
of the cloud where the user is able to deploy and run arbitrary application.
No control over the resources
of the underlying cloud infrastructure (but control over OS, deployed apps and often networking components)
billed based on usage
Amazon Web Services, Google Compute Engine
CLOUD ECOSYSTEM ACTORS
Cloud Service User (CSU)
A person or organization (Corporations, Universities, Governmental/Public Institutions…) that consumes delivered cloud services
A CSU can include
that deliver cloud services provided by cloud services provider to actual users of the cloud service, i.e end users
End users can be persons, machines or applications
Cloud Service Provider (CSP)
An organization that provides and maintains delivered cloud services
7. SoftLayer (IBM)
A person or organization that provides support to the buildind of the service of a Cloud Service Provider
Cloud Service Partner (CSN)
PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT
PERSPECTIVES FOR CLOUD COMPUTING
In order to face the future challenges, these are the
main key concerns
on which which Cloud computing firms have to be focused:
Fault tolerance and reliability
Scalability of code and data
Some form of
is required to reduce the overhead for the administrator to cater for:
And this relates not only to the machines, but also to the communication network and to handling the data.
This concern can be divided in four sub-concerns:
Efficient handling of an increasing amount of more and more heterogeneous resources;
Interoperability and portability between the resources employed;
Efficient handling of an increasing amount of information and communication;
Efficient handling and processing of large quantities of data.
is a group of users sharing the same view on the software they use.
Multi-tenancy raises three main concerns:
Consistency of shared data becomes highly complicated with the number of concurrent users and the degree of interactivity;
The data of an individual tenant needs to be kept secure and private;
Usage information needs to be isolated as well.
Fault tolerance and Reliability
The pure hardware mean time between failure (
) of a modern server is even as low as a week.
With the growing number of nodes it will increase dramatically.
It is necessary a mean to ensure reliability , otherwise a typical future server provided application would thus
fail too frequently
for proper usage.
TYPES OF INNOVATION
Consumers must be able to obtain cloud services – at the infrastructure, platform, or application level –
whenever they want
, without requiring significant assistance
Broad Network Access
Cloud computing resources are accessible
over the network
, supporting heterogeneous client platforms such as mobile devices and workstations
: Any kinds of resources to be shared to compose cloud services,
including computing power, storage, network, database, and applications.
The CSP's computing resources are pooled to serve multiple users using a
multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources that are
dynamically assigned and reassigned according to user demand.
Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand.
To the CSU, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.
Resource usage are monitored, measured, and billed transparently based on utilization.
In short, pay for use.
Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
Threat of new entrants
Bargaining power of suppliers
Bargaining powers of buyers
Threat of substitutes
Threat of New Entrants
Bargaining power of suppliers
Bargaining powers of buyers
level because of
low switching cost
and availability of many choices.
level due to lack of interoperability standards and usage of proprietary development language lead to a
which leads to
high switching cost
Iaas is considered to be a
Low product differentiation
bargaining power of buyers.
is only way to stay competitive in this market (Amazon).
Threat of substitutes
threat of substitutes because the cloud computing itself is in the growth phase.
This could change rapidly if the cloud is seen to be not as
as traditional networking infrastructure.
Even in the same service area (Saas, Paas, Iaas) the competition tends to stay
among big companies (like
) because of
low product differentiation
Companies that provide
solutions tend to face an
level of competition since the
cost to compete
is relatively low.
large economies of scale
segment the result will likely be an industry with a few large companies (
Different intensity for the different types of products within the cloud:
Low initial investment
Low time to market
Low exit barrier
Presence of industry giants (e.g., Google and Amazon)
High barrier to entry (can be reduced with differentiation and innovation)
Very high initial investment
Presence of industry giants
supplier across all segments is
were to raise the prices it could affect the industry.
In the 1950s
The introduction of the main frame computers took two problems:
- it was
for a company to buy one for every employee
- the typical user did not need to access
the storage capacity
the processing power
that one mainframe had.
The solution was to provide
to a single resource
In the 1970s
The concept of
It was common to use virtualisation softwares.
Thanks to them, it became possible to execute one or more operative system
in an isolated environment.
In the 1990s
Telecommunication companies generally offerd single
dedicated point-to-point data connections
In this period they started offering
virtualized private network connections
- same services at a lower cost;
- shared access to the same physical infrastructure.
NEW CHALLENGES FOR CLOUD COMPUTING
In the modern and globalized economy, with the creation of modern technologies, Cloud providers and developers have experienced a growing demand for:
accessibility to data;
mobile office working environment;
Providers have to face the problem connection losses.
Connected with the demand of Mobility.
It is necessary to ensure longer operation times.
The Energy Constraints apply to all the modern IT infrastructures.
The cloud computing could be considered both
Might be evaluated as
because it is built upon an existing applied data center technology, adding automation, self-service and elasticity
Cloud computing has also been a
in the business world, displacing many resources that would conventionally have been located in-house or provided as a traditionally hosted service.
web-based utility computing
of these technologies
will have to focus mostly on
Data management and handling
Legislation and Policies
Huge amount and variety of
hardware and software
required to run business application. A lot of
are needed to install, configure, test, run, secure, and update them.
Cloud computing allows to
hardware and software
It works like a
: Pay-per-use, automatic upgrades, and easy scaling up or down possibility within the
(off-site and remote)
The infrastructure is made
available to the general public
Resources are dynamically provisioned on an
, self-service basis over the Internet
Owned by a
who bills on a utility computing basis
The infrastructure is
solely for an organization
It may be managed by the
It may exists
some portion of computing resources on-site
By integrating public cloud services, users can leverage cloud solutions for
functions that are
too costly to maintain on-premise
virtual server disaster recovery
It is formed when
and concerns (like mission, policy, security requirements and compliance considerations) share
Costs are spread
over fewer users than a public cloud but more than a single tenant
Google data center, The Dalles (Oregon)
Curiosity: the term "cloud-computing" has been coined in 1996 at Compaq as a metaphor for the Internet
are numerous and generally
do not have strong bargaining power
with respect to the giants of the cloud industry.
The real innovations are the new
business and cost models
that can be developed
thanks to the opportunities
offered by cloud computing
The quest for an overdeveloped sector
What challenges a Cloud should be able to handle in the future?
Nowadays the IT environment has to face:
An increase in the number of resources on all levels of the IT infrastructure;
An increase in the number of users and requests.
That is why:
Mechanisms for automated management of large scale infrastructures are in growing demand;
Outsourcing to compensate management deficiencies.
The range of types of
is significantly increasing.
This divergence is
impossible to handle
for an average IT infrastructure provider.
can be just a temporary solution.
An increasing number of new companies enter the Cloud computing market.
They claim to offer innovations in terms of products, service and features.
It is generally accepted that this sector have reached a peak of
Is it really possible to state that this sector doesn't have any further possibilities of development?
In the IT environment, scalability seems to have two usages:
It is the ability of a computer application or product to continue to function well when is
changed is size
the ability of taking the
of the rescaling.
Clayton M. Christensen defined two types of Innovations:
, that extend existing technologies, improving them incrementally.
, that represent an entirely new technology solution that bring a twist in an existing market.
Industry in its beginning stage:
Competition level will increase as new companies enter the market
Challenges & Perspectives
THE EVOLUTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING