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Emily Sigouin

on 27 November 2016

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Before the Newcomers
• There were people living in Canada thousands of years before Europeans came to North America and claimed the land and resources
First Nations – lived throughout NA and had developed a variety of cultures (own distinct languages, ways of living on the land, ways of governing and organizing themselves, and beliefs and values)
"Each tribe or body of Indians has its own range of country, and sometimes each family its own hunting grounds, marked out by certain natural divisions... all the game within these bounds are considered their property... It is at the peril of an intruder to trespass on the hunting grounds of another."
- Missisauga Ojibwe Chief Peter Jones
What does this suggest about the importance of land for First Nations before Europeans arrived?
At the time - "Indians"
Today - "First Nations" or "Aboriginal peoples"
Why did they want the land?
• Europeans wanted to stay in NA because of resources
(ie. fish, fur, timber)
In Europe – large population = less resources i.e. fur-bearing animals and fish almost extinct
New land (NA) = jobs and wealth
• Fish took several weeks to preserve with salt before they could take it back home
Developed relationships with FNs, who taught them to build canoes and sleds and to navigate the terrain
FNs traded fresh food and fur to Europeans in exchange for metal pots, tools and cloth

Newcomers to Canada
What is a colony?
A colony is:
"a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by settlers from that country."
Why do people want to go to space?
French and English Settlements
• Early 1600s – France and England tried to make their claims on North America stronger by establishing permanent settlements
Built on land where FN peoples lived

What was New France?
"New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763."
What Was British North America?
Same idea as New France only for England!
And they came to North America
later than the French!
We will learn more about this later...
"... it is likely to be true that these savages have no particular property in any part or parcel of that country, but only a general residency there, as wild beasts in the forest."
- Preacher
What does the language of this quote suggest about European attitudes toward FN peoples at the time?
Europeans = 'civilized', Indigenous peoples = 'savages'
(British territory)
• First English settlement in Newfoundland
English focused their settlements along east coast of North America
South of French
• French lived mostly along St. Lawrence River
• English built three trading posts around James Bay – put them closer to some FNs, making it easier to trade with them for furs
James Bay
A treaty is an agreement signed between different countries in which promises are made (often in order to end a war)
France's second colony in eastern North America
King Louis XIV (of France) paid much more attention to New France (other colony)
Military concentrated its efforts on defending New France
Acadia was vulnerable to attack!
The Beginning of the 1700s:
Rivalry between France and Britain
Louis XIV was trying to make France the most powerful nation in Europe - fought with Britain for GLOBAL POWER
Britain and France fought in Europe but also attacked each other's colonies in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and NORTH AMERICA
war of the spanish succession
Between 1702 and 1713
Led to France’s loss of Acadia – Britain gained control of it and the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique
1713 – negotiated a peace treaty at Utrecht in the Netherlands
Each side agreed to give back some of the colonies it had captured in the war
Britain offered to return either Acadia or Guadeloupe and Martinique
These islands grew sugar (very valuable in Europe)
France agreed to keep them and give up Acadia – thought they could still get furs from New France
Most of Acadia transferred to British in TU – but Ile Royale (now called Cape Breton) retained by French
After 1713 – except for Ile Royale, the British completely surrounded New France
NF found it difficult to strengthen its position – spent a lot of energy resisting British presence

Ile Royale was a teeny tiny island in Lake Superior
the british were not very nice
to the Acadians either...
Britain paid little attention to Acadia
BUT wanted to know Acadians would not revolt against them
Tried to get them to sign an oath of allegiance (statement of loyalty) to the British king
Acadians would not sign it because the king was an English Protestant and the Acadians were French Roman Catholic
They had lived in the area for many generations and wanted to continue living peacefully - BUT resented being ruled by British soldiers
Acadia had about 12 000 inhabitants of French origin
1755-1760: about 10 000 of them expelled from the region
Some went to the French colony of Louisiana
"Evangeline" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
European and First
Nations Relations
Europeans negotiated and signed the Treaty of Utrecht - but they did not consult First Nations about their claims to the land or the terms of the treaty
Subjects of Great Britain and France are supposed to "behave peaceably towards" the First Nations peoples in North America
From the Treaty of Utrecht:
"The subjects of France inhabiting Canada, and others, shall hereafter give no hinderance or molestation to the... [First Nations], subject to the Dominion of Great Britain, nor to the other natives of America, who are friends to the same. In like manner, the subjects of Great Britain shall behave themselves peaceably towards the Americans who are subjects or friends to France [including First Nations]; and on both sides, they shall enjoy full liberty of going and coming on account of trade..."
Let's think about this...
Why was it important for the French and the British to have peace with each other and with First Nations?
Does it seem like the Europeans followed the part of the treaty that we just read?
Claiming First Nations Land*
The treaty gave the British control of the East Coast
They wanted the First Nations land in that area so they chased them away or killed them
Abenaki forced to flee their territory
Some relocated to New France and joined French and First Nations allies - wanted to fight the British
French thought Abenaki could help defend New France from future attacks by the British
French urged Abenaki to move from British territories and settle in New France
What evidence is there that the British were in a strong position in North America at this time?
How did the French try to strengthen their position against the British?
"The Treaty of Peace and Friendship"
France and Britain agreed to stop fighting each other
Valuable land changed hands from French to British
French and English established peace - First Nations were left out
British still wanted to expand their territory
Needed to repair relationships with First Nations - especially Wabanaki Confederacy (who had an alliance with the French)
British wanted to end this alliance - take control of the land
Treaty of Portsmouth
: British and Wabanaki Confederacy
French worked hard to preserve their relationship with the WC
What common cause did they have?
Breaking the Treaty of Portsmouth
Shortly after signing, the British stationed soldiers and built settlements inside Wabanaki territory
Borders between French and British in dispute
French and English pushing farther into First Nation territory (again)
British began to displace and enslave Wabanaki nations (again)
WC response: fight back - raid British settlements
British suspected French were involved in attacks
French claimed WC acted alone
How did the Treaty of Utrecht lead
to changes in North America?
Using the chart, list the major changes to the lives of any three groups of people affected by the Treaty of Utrecht
Which changes were the most important?
Which changes were positive and which ones were negative?
Which group's life IMPROVED the most during the beginning of the 1700s?
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