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Medieval Times - Humanities Task
Transcript of Medieval Times - Humanities Task
The Earliest medieval merchants were the pedlars who sold goods to towns and villages. They were basically just wandering adventurers.
2. By the beginning of the 14th century, what was England importing?
England was importing items such as precious metal, silk and other luxuries, wine, oil and salt by the beginning of the 14th century, from the Eastern Mediterranean, using Italian and German cargo ships.
3. By the beginning of the 14th century, what was England exporting?
In return for all of these items, England exported coal, wool, timber, iron and copper back to the Mediterranean.
4. Where did the double-entry ledge originate?
Double-entry ledges originated in Florence by traders in the 14th century, who discovered that they could book-keep using two columns, one for debits and one for credits.
5. Whom did merchants hire to help with paperwork?
Merchants hire scribes and clerks to assist them with their paperwork, as when trading developed more paperwork was needed.
6. With what did merchants mark their papers?
Merchants had to sign the paperwork and mark it with a wax seal.
7. Of what were most of the medieval coins made?
Most of the coins used in medieval times were silver. These were used up until 1252.
8. Where was the first gold coin since Roman times made?
The first gold coin minted since the Roman times was made in Florence, which was called the florin.
9. Where was European banking born?
European banking was born in Italy, where people lending money worked behind benches.
10. How did banks make a profit?
Banks made profits with the interest that they charged for their service. 1. What are the seven types of entertainment in which a serf could participate?
A serf could participate in church festivals, join a marriage or funeral procession, watch and listen to traveling poets, musicians, acrobats and dancers.
2. What did people do to celebrate Christmas, May Day and Midsummer?
At Christmas, villagers would dress up and visit the Lord at his house. There they would perform in return for some money or Christmas food. On May Day young villagers would get up early to play in the bright spring sun, then gather leaves to decorate their homes. At Midsummer the villagers would light a bonfire and play a variety of sports and games.
1. What were the Lord's words when he swore fealty to his king?
When he swore fealty to his king, the Lord's would say, "Sire, I have become your man".
2. Why did most kings not keep standing armies?
Kings were not wealthy enough to keep a standing army, so they relied on their barons to prepare the knights and soldiers.
3. Who was most likely to threaten the king's powers?
The barons were most likely to threaten the king's powers, as they were some of the kings noblemen that can grow very powerful.
4. How did bishops become wealthy?
A regular collection of taxes such as tithes kept the bishops very wealthy.
5. If William received the maximum number of warriors from each baron, how large would his army be?
William of Normandy had 120 barons that cold provide him a maximum of 5,000 warriors. This would make the maximum capacity for his army 600,000 warriors.
1. What was the definition of a criminal?
A criminial in the Medieval times was someone who 'had disturbed the king's peace'.
2. Who dealt with minor crimes?
Lords were responsible for any minor crime, such as a baker who made underweight bread.
3. Who dealt with major crimes?
Major criminals were dealt with by justices appointed by the king. They dealt with crimes such as a robbery.
4. What was the sheriff's job?
The sheriff was appointed the job of rounding up criminals and keeping them in gaol.
5. What is a 'gaol'?
A gaol was the name given to prisons in the Medieval times.
6. Why did the prisoners die before they came to trial?
Prisoners usually died of disease in gaol because of the dirty, crowded conditions.
7. How could a prisoner starve to death?
Prisoners relied on their friends and family to bring them food and water while they were in gaol, but if they had none they would have to starve.
8. In order to stop highway robbers, what did a 14th century law require lords to do?
Lords had to cut down trees to 10 metres during the 14th century, so robbers had nowhere to hide.
9. What were the punishments for minor crimes?
For a minor crime, a punishment would be something like a fine, or being put into the stocks.
10. What were the punishments for major crimes?
The punishment for a major crime was execution. 1. What was the lord of the manor's primary duty?
The lord of the manor had the primary duty as a knight of the king.
2. What form of rent did the villagers (serfs) pay to the lord?
The villagers payed the lord in rent as produce, because the farming of the lord's land was one of their duties.
3. Most of life's necessities were produced on the fief. What are two examples of things that had to be brought in to the fief?
Salt and iron were two things that were brought in from outside the fief.
4. What were the lords' and ladies' favourite past time?
The lords and ladies had a lot of spare time and one of their favourite past times was hunting in their private woodland.
5. What animals helped them in this pursuit?
Hawks and packs of hounds were some of the animals that helped them in this pursuit.
6. What were the duties of the bailiff?
The bailiff's duties were to give jobs to the peasants, while running repairs on buildings.
7. Who was the bailiff's assistant?
The bailiff's assistant was the reeve.
8. What were his duties?
The reeve's duties were to make sure everyone turned up for work on time and never stole from the lord.
9. What functions did the manor host?
The manor hosted feasts on special occasions such as Christmas and after the harvest. 1. How old was a boy when he was sent away to start training as a knight?
A boy was 7 years old when he was sent away to another Lord's family to start training as a knight.
2. What was the boy called during his first stage of training?
During the first stage, the boy was called a page.
3. How long did the first stage last?
The first stage lasted for 7-8 years, until he was about 14 years old.
4. What did he learn during this first stage?
During the first stage of training, the boy was taught how to ride a horse, serve food, sing and play chess. He was also taught to serve God and to be well mannered.
5. From whom did he learn in the first stage?
In the first stage, the boy was cared for and taught by the women of the Lord's house.
6. What was the boy called during the second stage of training?
During the second stage of training, the boy was called a squire.
7. What did he learn during this second stage?
He learnt how to hawk, sword fight, hunt and wrestle, how to use weapons while on horseback, how to care for a horse and put on armour. He was finally taught the code of conduct of a knight.
8. From whom did he learn in the second stage?
The boy was the personal assistant to the knight, who was the boy's teacher.
9. At what age did the boy become a knight?
The boy became a knight at adulthood, when he was aged 18-21. Knights in battle while on horseback Townlife 1. What led to the growth of the towns?
The growth of trade and the new middle class of merchants both affected the growth of towns. The king encouraged this.
2. Who were the most exalted members of a town?
The most exalted and praised of the towns were the merchants.
3. Why did merchants support the king and a strong central government?
Merchants supported the king and a strong central government because they were needy of stability for trade.
4. What did the merchant guilds regulate?
The merchant guilds regulated prices, quality, weights, measures and practices in business.
5. What three stages did a boy go through in order to become able to own a shop and be fully accepted by a craft guild?
Firstly the boy was an apprentice, and was one for 2-7 years. Then he was a journeyman for another several years, in which he would work on a specific piece. Then he would submit this piece, and if approved he would become a master craftsman.
6. From where does the term for the second stage come, and what does it mean?
The term for the second stage, 'journeyman' comes from the French word 'journee' that means day, and journeymen get paid by the day.
7. If a serf escaped to a town, how long did he have to stay there in order to remain free?
A serf would have to be away from the manor for a year and a day to be considered free.
8. What was the penalty for a thief caught with stolen goods?
Any thief that was caught with stolen goods was hanged.
9. Why did the buildings of cooks, barbers and brewers have to be whitewashed and plastered?
The buildings of cooks, barbers and brewers had to be whitewashed and plastered because of the great risk of a fire.
Knights in Training The Lord of the Manor A jester providing some entertainment A criminal in gaol Medieval town life Two villagers trading goods Thanks For Watching Bibliography www.camelotintl.com/village/street.html
British Heritage - Medieval Life
Accessed: 3/3/13, 5/3/13
Medieval Knights and Warfare
Daily Life in Medieval Times