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A Comparative Study during the administration of Marcos and Aquino
Transcript of A Comparative Study during the administration of Marcos and Aquino
By Mariella Angela P. Mercado
Administration of Corazon Aquino
Economy of the PH
Administration of Cory Aquino
Achievements during their terms
Administration of Cory Aquino
Appreciation of their Improvements
Administration of Ferdinand Marcos
Economy of the PH
The most immediate task for Aquino's economic advisers was to get the economy moving, and a turn around was achieved in 1986. Economic growth was low (1.9 percent), but it was positive. For the next two years, growth was more respectable--5.9 and 6.7 percent, respectively. In 1986 and 1987, consumption led the growth process, but then investment began to increase. In 1985 industrial capacity utilization had been as low as 40 percent, but by mid-1988 industries were working at near full capacity.
-approved and enacted in February 1987
- crippled presidential power to declare martial law
-proposed the creations of autonomous regions in Cordilleras
-restoration of democratic institutions
-freedom constitution (proclamation no.3)
-The Aquino government believed that a large portion of the nation's wealth was taken by the Marcoses and so the PCGG (Presidential Commission on Good Government)
-The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) was a land reform law signed by President Cory Aquino
-DSWD (Department of Social-Welfare and Development)
1. Protection and rehabilitation of mentally and physically disabled
2. Prove complete services for the needy
3. Improve inhuman conditions
Corazon Aquino took oath as the eleventh President of Philippines on February 25, 1986. On February 28, she set up Presidential Commission on Good Government, whose main task was to investigate and recover the ill-gotten wealth accumulated by previous regime.
She abolished the 1973 constitution in operation during the martial rule and proclaimed the provisional Freedom Constitution in 1986. At the same time, she appointed a commission to write a new constitution, which was ratified in 1987.
However, one has to appreciate that the situation was very difficult for President Aquino. She had to face problems in every sector. The economy was in ruins. In addition to US$ 28 billion of foreign debts left by the previous regime, she also had to tackle mass poverty.
The persistent attack by the communists hindered her efforts to a large extent. Due to sabotage by Marcos’ friends in the government, protracted blackouts were very common in Manila, which affected the city’s trade and industry.
She was not sure of the loyalty of the armed forces either and had to face several attempted coups by different sections of the Armed Forces.
The GDP of the Philippines rose during the martial law, rising from P55 million to P193 million in about 8 years. This growth was spurred by massive lending from commercial banks, accounting for about 62% percent of external debt. As a developing country, the Philippines during the martial law was one of the heaviest borrowers. These aggressive moves were seen by critics as a means of legitimizing martial law by purportedly enhancing the chances of the country in the global market. Much of the money was spent on pump-priming to improve infrastructure and promote tourism. However, despite the aggressive borrowing and spending policies, the Philippines lagged behind its Southeast Asia counterparts in GDP growth rate per capital.
The country, in 1970–1980, only registered an average 3.4 percent growth, while its counterparts like Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia garnered a mean growth of 5.4 percent. This lag, which became very apparent at the end of the Marcos Regime, can be attributed to the failures of economic management that was brought upon by State-run monopolies, mismanaged exchange rates, imprudent monetary policy and debt management, all underpinned by rampant corruption and cronyism. Main characteristics distinguishing the Marcos years from other periods of our history has been the trend towards the concentration of power in the hands of the government, and the use of governmental functions to dispense economic privileges to some small factions in the private sector.
PRESIDENT CORY AQUINO
Maria Corazon Sumulong Conjuangco was born on January 25, 1933 in Paniqui, Tarlac, which is in central Luzon, the Philippines, north of Manila. Her parents were Jose Chichioco Cojuangco and Demetria "Metring" Sumulong, and the family were of mixed Chinese, Filipino, and Spanish descent. The family surname is a Spanish version of the Chinese name "Koo Kuan Goo."
As a young girl, Corazon Aquino was studious and shy. She also showed a devout commitment to the Catholic Church from an early age. Corazon went to expensive private schools in Manila through age 13, when her parents sent her to the United States for high school.
Corazon went first to Philadelphia's Ravenhill Academy and then the Notre Dame Convent School in New York, graduating in 1949. As an undergraduate at the College of Mount St. Vincent in New York City, Corazon Aquino majored in French. She also was fluent in Tagalog, Kapampangan, and English.
Corazon in Politics:
Literally millions of Filipinos poured into the streets of Manila for Ninoy's funeral. Corazon led the procession with quiet grief and dignity, and went on to lead protests and political demonstrations as well. Her calm strength under horrific conditions made her the center of anti-Marcos politics in the Philippines - a movement known as "People Power."
Corazon Aquino supported her Defense Secretary, Fidel Ramos, in his candidacy to replace her as president. Ramos won the 1992 presidential election in a crowded field, although he was far short of a majority of the vote.
In retirement, former President Aquino frequently spoke out on political and social issues. She was particularly vocal in opposing later presidents' attempts to amend the constitution to allow themselves extra terms in office. She also worked to reduce violence and homelessness in the Philippines.
PRESIDENT FERDINAND MARCOS
During World War II, Ferdinand Marcos served as an officer with the Philippine armed forces, later claiming that he had been a leader in the Filipino guerrilla resistance movement. These claims were a principal element in his subsequent political success, but it was revealed in U.S. government archives that he actually played little or no part in anti-Japanese activities during World War II.
At the end of the war, when the American government granted the Philippines independence on July 4, 1946, the Philippine Congress was created. Marcos ran and was twice elected as representative to his district and served from 1949 to 1959. In 1959, Marcos took a seat in the Philippine Senate, a position he would hold until he ran for and won the presidency in 1965.
Ferdinand Marcos went to school in Manila and later attended law school at the University of the Philippines. His father, Mariano Marcos, was a Filipino politician, and on September 20, 1935, the day after Julio Andalusian defeated Mariano Marcos for a seat in the National Assembly (for the second time), Nalundasan was shot and killed in his home. Ferdinand, Mariano and Ferdinand’s brother and brother-in-law were tried for the assassination, and Ferdinand and his brother-in-law were found guilty of the murder. Ferdinand argued their case on appeal to the Philippine Supreme Court and won acquittal a year later.
The Marcos regime began to collapse after the August 1983 assassination (political killing) of Benigno S. Aquino Jr. (1933–1983), who had been Marcos' main political rival. Aquino was shot and killed when he arrived at the Manila airport after three years in the United States. The killing enraged Filipinos, as did authorities' claim that the murder was the work of a single gunman. A year later, a civilian investigation brought charges against a number of soldiers and government officials, but in 1985 none of them were found guilty. Nevertheless, most Filipinos believe that Marcos was involved in Aquino's killing
Investment in durable goods grew almost 30 percent in both 1988 and 1989, reflecting the buoyant atmosphere. The international community was supportive. Like domestic investment, foreign investment did not respond immediately after Aquino took office, but in 1987 it began to pick up. The economy also was helped by foreign aid. The 1989 and 1991 meetings of the aid plan called the Multilateral Aid Initiative, also known as the Philippine Assistance Plan, a multinational initiative to provide assistance to the Philippines, pledged a total of US$6.7 billion.
In 1987, Aquino government restored the bicameral Congress, abolished during Marcos’ regime. She also held the election to the new Congress and promulgated ‘The Family Code, 1987 and Administrative Code 1987.
She also broke the monopoly of the followers of Marcos over the country’s economy and was able to usher in limited economical and agricultural reforms. Although it improved the economic condition of the country to some extent, her policies were criticized as faltering and her popularity began to decrease.
In addition, the country was also devastated by a number of natural calamities during the last two years of her rule.
In 1992, as her term grew to an end, President Aquino refused to seek reelection. By this, she tried to set an example and make people aware that the post of the President was never permanent.
When the new President was sworn on June 30, 1992, Corazon Aquino handed over the charge and drove away in her modest Toyota Crown to a retired, but active life.
Achievements during their terms
Administration of Marcos
THE FIRST TERM OF MARCOS (1965 – 1969)
In his first term Marcos tried to stabilize the financial position of the government through an intensified tax collection. He also borrowed heavily from international financing institutions to support a large-scale infrastructure works projects were built. He improved agricultural production to make the country self-sufficient in food, especially in rice.
Marcos also tried to strengthen the foreign relations of the Philippines. He hosted a seven-nation summit conference on the crisis in South Vietnam in October, 1966. In support for the U.S. military efforts in South Vietnam, he agreed to send Filipino troops to that war zone.
THE SECOND TERM OF MARCOS (1969 – 1972) In November 1969 Ferdinand Marcos and Fernando Lopez were re-elected. They defeated the Liberal Party ticket of Sergio Osmeña, Jr. and Senator Genaro Magsaysay. In winning the election, Marcos achieved the political distinction of being the first President of the Republic to be re-elected.
-The 1971 Constitutional Convention The Congress of the Philippines called for a Constitutional Convention on June 1, 1971 to review and rewrite the 1935 Constitution. Three-hundred twenty delegates were elected. The convention was headed first by former President Carlos P. Garcia and later by former President Diosdado Macapagal.
-The Convention's image was tarnished by scandals which included the bribing of some delegates to make them "vote" against a proposal to prohibit Marcos from continuing in power under a new constitution. This scandal was exposed by Delegate Eduardo Quintero. For exposing the bribery attempt, Quintero found himself harassed by the government.
-The first Papal Visit to the Philippines On November 27, 1970, Pope Paul VI visited the Philippines. It was the first time that the Pope had visited the only Catholic nation in Asia. Huge crowds met the Pope wherever he went in Metro Manila. The Pope left on November 29.
Appreciation of their Improvements
Administration of Marcos
Looking back at history, during the Marcos administration, social justice finds concrete translation in development plans and programs. These interventions were focused on eliminating illiteracy, expanding employment opportunities, sharing the fruits of development equitably and introducing requisite of institutional change. The measures of development—the Gross National Product (GNP), literacy rate, and life expectancy had been secured during his lead. Let us count the ways:
I. Food sufficiency
A. Green Revolution
Production of rice was increased through promoting the cultivation of IR-8 hybrid rice. In 1968 the Philippines became self-sufficient in rice, the first time in history since the American period. It also exported rice worth US$7 million.
B. Blue Revolution
Marine species like prawn, mullet, milkfish, and golden tilapia were being produced and distributed to farmers at a minimum cost. Today, milkfish and prawns contribute substantially to foreign exchange income.
C. Liberalized Credit
More than one thousand rural banks spread all over the country resulting to the accessibility of credit to finance purchase of agricultural inputs, hired labor, and harvesting expenses at very low interest rate. During 1981-1985, credit was available without interest and collateral arrangements. Some of the credit programs were the ff:
1. Biyayang Dagat (credit support for fishermen)
2. Bakahang Barangay –supported fattening of 40,000 head of cattle in farmer backyards
3. Masaganang Maisan, Maisagana, and Expanded Yellow Corn Program –supported 1.4 Million farmers through P4.7 Billion loans from 1975-1985
4. Gulayan sa Kalusugan and Pagkain ng Bayan Programs –provided grants and loans of P12.4 Million to encourage backyard and communal production of vegetables and improve nutrition of Filipino households
5. Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran (KKK)—supported 25,000 entrepreneurial projects through P1.8 Billion and helping 500,000 beneficiaries
D. Decontrol Program
Price control polices were implemented on rice and corn to provide greater incentive to farmers to produce more. Deregulation of trading in commodities like sugar and coconut and agricultural inputs like fertilizer were done for more efficient marketing and trading arrangements.