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Copy of HSCI 120 Alcohol & Tobacco (Chapter 9)

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Christy Scroggins

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Transcript of Copy of HSCI 120 Alcohol & Tobacco (Chapter 9)

Chapter 9:
Alcohol & Tobacco
The effects of smoking & drinking are no secret.
65% of adults drink
28% of those are "at risk"drinkers
Low Risk =
week
day
Granted authority to the FDA to regulate tobacco
Larger and more explicit health warning labels required on tobacco product packaging
“Light,” “low,” or “mild” on packaging prohibited
Cigarette machines only allowed in 18+ venues
Single cigarette sales prohibited
Free samples prohibited
Product tie-ins prohibited
Confronting the Tobacco Challenge
Of smokers who enter good treatment programs,
20–40%
are able to quit for at least a year
Treatment Programs & Medications to Quit Smoking

Risks for many
health problems are reduced
when smokers quit
Health benefits begin immediately
and are more significant over time
Within a year, the risk for heart attack & coronary artery disease is
reduced by half
Within
5 years
, the risk approaches that of nonsmokers
Quitting increases
quality of life
Benefits of Quitting
Greater use of other forms of tobacco (cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco) places men at higher risk for cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach
Special Health Risks for Men
People who start smoking often lose weight, and continuing smokers gain weight less rapidly than nonsmokers
Some health experts believe it is the most addictive of all the psychoactive drugs
Why Do People Smoke?
Dissolvable tobacco products
Small pellets, sticks, or strips that consist of finely ground and pressed tobacco
Ingested orally like a breath mint
Tobacco Products
Carbon monoxide
is an odorless gas that interferes with the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen to vital body organs
Substances in Tobacco

Record behavior patterns
Developing a Behavior Change Plan
Controlled drinking, which emphasizes moderation rather than abstinence
Harm Reduction
Alcohol dependence:
disorder characterized by a strong craving for alcohol, development of tolerance for alcohol, and withdrawal symptoms
Misuse, Abuse,
& Dependence
Suicide risk
Social Problems
Heart disease & stroke
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
Coronary heart disease
College students who mix alcohol and energy drinks are
three times more likely
to leave a bar drunk and
four times more likely
to drive drunk
Energy drinks & alcohol
Liver disease
Gender Differences in Alcohol Absorption and Metabolism

100 mg of alcohol in 100 milliliters of blood is equivalent to a BAC of .10%
Once it reaches the brain, alcohol alters brain chemistry and neurotransmitter functions
Alcohol Absorption
Ease social inhibitions
Why do students drink?

The days when cigarette smoking was an accepted part of everyday life are gone
Health experts recommend creating antismoking campaigns modeled after those used by the tobacco companies
Targeted at the youth market segment
Deliver the messages repeatedly and over long periods of time in a multitude of formats
Community intervention also recommended
Confronting the Tobacco Challenge
Lawsuits and court settlements:
The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), in which the tobacco industry agreed to pay $206 billion to 46 states over a 25-year period
Limiting access to tobacco
Raising cigarette taxes reduces demand
Laws restricting sales to minors
Restrictions on tobacco advertising
Confronting the Tobacco Challenge
Tobacco has been part of the economy of the country since colonial times
It is a multibillion-dollar industry with tremendous lobbying power and a huge impact on the nation’s economic health
Significant inroads have been made in confronting the challenge posed by tobacco in the U.S.
Confronting the Tobacco Challenge
Record and analyze your smoking patterns
Quitting On Your Own
Miscarriage
Stillbirths
Preterm delivery
Low birth weight in infants
Perinatal death
High risk for SIDS
Lung cancer
Heart disease
Respiratory disease
Fertility problems
Menstrual disorders
Early menopause
Special Health Risks for Women
Nicotine effects
can reach the brain within 7–10 seconds, producing stimulation and sedation
Short-Term Effects of Smoking
Pipes
Pipe smoke has more toxins than cigarette smoke
Hookahs are milder than cigarettes or pipes but still poses a great health risk to the smoker
Tobacco Products
Brief interventions
Primary care physician
Inpatient and outpatient treatment
Residential facilities
Detoxification and withdrawal
Medications
Counseling
Self-help programs
Support groups (AA, Al-Anon, Alateen, Adult Children of Alcoholics, others)
Treatment Options
Enhances body’s sensitivity to insulin
Moderate drinking:
Cancers
of the head and neck, cancers of the digestive tract, and breast cancer
Acute alcohol intoxication
is a life-threatening blood alcohol concentration which can produce collapse of vital body functions
Effects of Alcohol
on the Body

Small amount of alcohol metabolized in the stomach
90%
is metabolized by the liver
Alcohol Metabolism

Infertility
Sexual dysfunction
Periodontal disease
Duodenal ulcers
Osteoporosis
Cataracts
Reduced effects of some medications
Compromised lung function
Cardiovascular disease
Cancer
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Emphysema
Chronic bronchitis
Asthma
Premature skin wrinkling
Increased risk of surgery
Long-Term
Effects of Tobacco Use
The Path of Alcohol
19% of adults smoke
45%
1965
Public health campaigns
http://tobaccobody.fi/m_en.php
Decline has slowed since 1990
do we need to get more creative?

Smokers
v.
Drinkers

<
<
<
<
# 1 health concern
2007
asian flush
Risk Factors
family history
family dysfunction
Sociocultural factors:
acculturation
access to information
access to health care
some experts believe
nicotine is the most
addictive of all psychoactive drugs
Chemical & Behavioral Dependence
Weight control
Tobacco marketing & advertising
Because most smokers get hooked in adolescence, children and teenagers are prime targets of tobacco advertising
Major reason young women give for smoking
Nicotine suppresses appetite & slightly increases basal metabolic rate
Heart rate
Blood pressure
Body temp.
Smoking...
Health Effects
Mistaken belief of increased sexual arousal and performance
Cope with academic pressure
Soothe negative emotions
Reduce stress
Imitate role models
Fit in with peers
As alcohol concentrations increase, more functions are depressed, and greater impairment occurs
Alcohol is quickly distributed to all the cells of the body
Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant that impairs thinking, balance, and motor coordination
Food in the stomach =
slower
Gender: women =
higher BAC
Age: older =
less efficient
Body fat: higher =
higher BAC
Drug interaction:
metabolism
Cigarette smoke:
stomach emptying slower
Mood & physical condition: stress =
faster
Alcohol concentration: higher =
higher BAC
Carbonation:
stomach emptying

faster
Tolerance:
no actual impact on BAC
Factors affecting alcohol absorption:
2-10%
not metabolized at all but excreted through skin, urine, or breath
The
Science
of getting drunk
the amount of alcohol in grams in 100 milliliters of blood, expressed as a percentage.
Blood alcohol concentration (BAC):
Body water & body fat influences BAC levels in the body
Breath analyzers based on alcohol concentrations in breath that correspond to levels of alcohol in brain
Women generally more susceptible to effects of alcohol & have a higher BAC than men because...
Generally smaller than men
Higher body fat percentage
Metabolize alcohol less efficiently
For this reason, women more vulnerable to health consequences such as:
Brain damage
Heart disease
Hangovers
are a result of a common reaction to alcohol toxicity characterized by headache, stomach upset, thirst, and fatigue
A
blackout
is a period of time during which a drinker is conscious but has partial or complete amnesia for events
In 2010, several states banned sales of Four Loko, a fruity, caffeinated malt liquor drink that contained about 200 mg of caffeine and the alcoholic equivalent of
5-6
beers per can
Up to
28%
of college students reportedly mix alcohol and energy drinks, despite evidence that doing so is dangerous
Health Benefits
In younger adults, alcohol appears to have fewer if any health benefits and is associated with more deaths, injuries, and accidents
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that moderate alcohol consumption can be beneficial
Increase in HDL
Stress reduction
Anticlotting effect on the blood
Diuretic effect of high water content in beer
Medical Problems & Drinking
Fatty liver:
liver swells with fat globules
Alcoholic hepatitis:
inflammation of the liver
Cirrhosis:
scarring of the liver
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS):
set of birth defects associated with use of alcohol during pregnancy
Liver
Heart
Medical Problems
Drunkorexia:

excessive alcohol consumption & disordered eating
Long-term heavy drinkers are at risk for
weight loss & malnutrition
Recent studies suggest that alcohol abuse causes
dysfunction in lung cells
Heavy alcohol consumption causes anatomical changes in the brain and directly
damages brain cells
Reduction of inhibitions,
which may lead to high-risk sexual activity and a lowered likelihood of practicing safe sex.
Violence, including robbery, assault, rape, domestic violence, and homicide
Risk of injury
Drunk driving
Alcoholism
Alcoholism:
primary chronic disease characterized by excessive, compulsive drinking
Problem drinking:
pattern of alcohol use that impairs the drinker’s life, causing difficulties for the drinker and for others
Alcohol abuse:
pattern of alcohol use that leads to distress or impairment, increases the risk of health and/or social problems, and continues despite awareness of effects
Nicotine
is the primary addictive ingredient in tobacco; it is a poison and a psychoactive drug
Tar
is a thick, sticky residue formed when tobacco leaves burn, containing hundreds of chemical compounds and carcinogenic substances
Cigars
Nicotine is absorbed through the mucus membranes of the mouth
Higher risk for oral cancers
Cigarettes
The most popular tobacco product
Electronic cigarette
Smokeless tobacco
Snuff
Chewing tobacco
Snus
Spit tobacco contains at least 28 carcinogens, and use of spit tobacco is believed to cause about 10 to 15 percent of oral cancers
Many smokers have a harder time imagining their future life without cigarettes than they do dealing with the physiological symptoms of withdrawal
Behavioral dependence
Nicotine is a highly addictive psychoactive drug
Increases in release of the neurotransmitter dopamine produce feelings of pleasure and a desire to repeat the experience
The cardiovascular system cannot effectively deliver
oxygen to muscle cells
Tar and toxins
damage cilia,
the hair-like structures that prevent toxins and debris from reaching delicate lung tissue
Smoke quickly affects
heart rate
,
blood pressure
,
and

body temperature
Significant evidence indicates that inhaling ETS has
serious health consequences
smoke from other people’s tobacco products, also known as secondhand smoke or passive smoke
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS):
Infants & children
are especially vulnerable to the effects of ETS
In 2006, the U.S. surgeon general stated that there is
no safe level
of ETS exposure
Women who smoke during pregnancy are at increased risk for :
Special Health Risks for Ethnic Minority Groups
Men who smoke also are at risk for:
Problems with sexual function (impotence)
Fertility (motility and number of sperm)
Mortality rates
from several diseases associated with tobacco use, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and SIDS, are
higher for ethnic minority groups than for Whites
African American men & women
are more likely to die from lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke than are members of other ethnic groups,
despite lower rates
of tobacco use
Why?
Quitting
Alcoholism:
Alcoholism:
Minimum drinking age laws
Drunk driving laws
Ankle bracelet breathalyzers
Public policies & laws
The harm reduction approach to treatment focuses on reducing the harm associated with drinking, both to the individual and to society
Want to change?
Evaluate your results
Implement your plan
Establish goals
Analyze your drinking diary
Following a behavior change plan can assist you with reducing alcohol consumption
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)
Transdermal patch, nicotine inhaler, nicotine patch, hand gel (Nicogel)
Prescription drug (Zyban, Wellbutrin, Chantix)
Experimental vaccine (NicVax)
Medications
Treatment Programs
Develop a behavior change plan
Prevent relapse
Implement your plan
Prepare to quit
Establish goals
By 2003, thousands of local laws and ordinances were in place across the country, creating smoke-free indoor spaces
The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009
Education & prevention:
changing the cultural climate
For Next Class...
Reach Chapter 10: Drugs
Full transcript