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The Easter Rising 1916
Transcript of The Easter Rising 1916
THE LEADERS The 7 Signatories P.H. Pearse Ireland is the country that lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. People living in Ireland either live in the cities or country side. The main two religions of Ireland are Catholicism and Protestantism. Education in Ireland relates to that of the United Kingdom; grade school and grad school. The Irish economy is small and highly open. The Irish political system is a parliamentary democracy. Ireland's culture is both basic and traditional; it's customs are art, music, sports, and growing crops such as potatoes. The revolution started because Ireland was sick of being controlled by England. The Easter Rising Started in 1916 DUBLIN, 1916 It was the most significant uprising since the rebellion of 1798 It was organized by the Irish
Republican Brotherhood. "The Rising" lasted from Easter Monday, 24th of April to 30th of April. Seán MacDiarmada Thomas J Clarke Thomas Macdonagh P.H. Pearse Éamonn Ceannt James Connolly Joseph
Plunkett It first started developing in September 1914, following the outbreak of WWI Irish THE LEADERS The Easter Rising Organizations In the Easter Rising National Volunteers The Citizens Army The Hibernian Rifles Fianna Éireann Cumann Na mBan The Foresters Main leader of the Irish Republican Army Why did it happen? Again, it occurred because Ireland wanted their independence from Great Britain. A reason that it started was because Irish people were tired of being recruited by the UK army for WWI. P.H. Pearse declares "The day is coming when I shall be shot, wept away, and my colleagues like me......... Willie (Pearse)? Shot like the others. We'll all be shot." Was violence involved? How long did it last? Yes; when they rebelled, a group of people took over certain buildings to gain control of the town, this lasted 6 days. Throughout the rebellion, the leaders stayed the same. P.H. Pearse says "They think they have foreseen everything, but the fools! The fools! The fools! They have left us our Fenian dead; and while Ireland holds these graves; Ireland unfree shall never be at peace." Britain won the rebellion but the Irish were still uneasy with them. This shows that the Irish will most likely rebel again. Changes of the revolution: After the rebellion the british considered it as a stab in the back by the rebels and dealt with it with a hammer blow to the Irish party causing there to be more support for republicanism. Did changes occur as expected? It united the people of Ireland more since they worked together. It didn't spiritually help Ireland and it didn't effect it's culture. It did but it didn't; they got more support for their cause but they didn't necessarily foresee the reaction of the British. EVALUATION It wasn't successful because they didn't get their independence from England, but as Pearse wanted, they received more support for the cause. What has happened since the revolution? All of Ireland used to be part of the UK, now the Republic (south) is now an independent country, Northern Ireland however is still part of the UK. Also the Catholics and protestants are at odds. Irish news article Irish flag, 1916 Irish soldier uniforms, 1916 Ward, Alan J. The Easter Rising: Revolution and Irish Nationalism. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 2003. Print. http://www.easter1916.net/ http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch05d.htm http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk_prising.htm http://www.qub.ac.uk/sitesirishhistorylive/IrishHistoryResources/ArticlesandLectures/TheEasterRising/ CITATIONS! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_War_of_Independence http://eprints.qut.edu.au/9/1/Ainsworth_Black_cons.PDS http://www.globalgormet.com/destinations/ireland/irelandback.html#axzz2KJflKXut http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_The_Republic_of_Ireland http://www.movetoireland.com/movepag/miscpoli.htm http://www.tradingeconomics.com/ireland/gdp-growth Sir
BRITAIN PRESENTED TO YOU BY: Ashley Schutrum Janine Shawcross & Autumn Jolly With MacDiarmada's personal charm and sincerity, and his capacity for hard work, made him the obvious choice of the IRB to organize a further extension of republican formations, when they launched the Dungannon clubs about the beginning of the present century.
His success as organizer resulted in an invitation to join the Belfast Circle of the Irish Republican Brotherbood. This was in 1906, 10 years before the Rising. When he took the IRB oath he was already a member of Arthur Griffith's Sin Fein organization, and in 1906 was one of the delegates from Belfast to the Sinn Fein annual convention in Dublin. Sean MacDiarmada was a member of the secret military Council which planned the rising and, as such, held a position of great importance and trust.
At that time he was only 22, but his speech at the convention made a deep impression. He is described as a "striking handsome, and earnest, speaking with natural eloquence and with a sincerity which held his audience, gay and light-hearted with a gift of telling a humorous story and a tongue that was witty without being malicious." In 1882, he emigrated to America. During his time there he joined the republican organization Clan Na Gael and, as a proponent of violent revolution, he would serve 15 years in British jails for his role in a bombing campaign in London.
Clarke was released in 1898, and spent nine more years in America. He returned to Dublin in 1907 setting up a tobacconist’s shop on Great Britain Street (now Parnell Square), before being co-opted onto the IRB Military Council which was responsible for planning the Easter Rising.
Because of his criminal convictions, Clarke maintained a low proﬁle in Ireland, but was influential behind the scenes in the years of preparation for the Rising. With Denis McCullough, Bulmer Hobson and Seán MacDiarmada, Clarke revitalized the IRB and had a major role in setting up the Irish Freedom newspaper.
Devoted to the formation of an Irish republic, Clarke was also Chairman and a Trustee of the Wolfe Tone Memorial Committee, which organised the first pilgrimage to his grave at Bodenstown, Co Kildare in 1911. AKA Seán MacDermott http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~fianna/history/east1916.html#seanmd http://www.easter1916.ie/index.php/people/signatories/thomas-j-clarke/ In 1898 Pearse became a member of the Executive Committee of the Gaelic League. He graduated from the Royal University in 1901 with a degree in Arts and Law. He was later called to the bar. From his early school days he was deeply interested in Irish language and culture. He joined the Gaelic League in 1895 and became editor of its paper, An Claidheamh Soluis (Sword of light). He lectured in Irish at UCD.
Initially, Pearse was a supporter of Home Rule but his outlook on Irish freedom was to become more radical and when the Irish Volunteers formed in November 1913, he was elected a member of the provisional committee and later the Director of Organization.
One of the founder members of the Irish Volunteers, and the author of the Proclamation of Independence, Pearse was present in the GPO during the Rising, and was Commander in Chief of the Irish forces. A gifted poet, writer and dramatist, in 1909 MacDonagh was a founding member of the Association of Secondary Teachers of Ireland (ASTI), and also was active in setting up the Irish Women’s Franchise League in 1911 which promoted Irish nationalism and the cultural revival. His play When the Dawn is Come was produced at the Abbey Theatre.
MacDonagh joined the Irish Volunteers in November 1913, becoming a member of the provisional committee and taking part in the Howth gun-running.
He believed Irish freedom would be achieved by what he called “zealous martyrs”, hopefully through peace but, if necessary, by war. Son of a RIC officer, Ceannt was born in the police barracks at Ballymoe, Co Galway. He was in command of the 4th Battalion of Irish Volunteers at the South Dublin Union in 1916, which is now the site of St James’s Hospital.
Ceannt was a founder member of the Irish Volunteers and a signatory of the Proclamation of Independence.
On the foundation of the Irish Volunteers in November 1913, he was elected to the provisional committee, becoming involved in fundraising for arms. Born in Edinburgh to Irish immigrant parents, Connolly was one of the seven signatories of the Proclamation and one of three to sign the surrender. Raised in poverty, his interest in Irish nationalism is said to have stemmed from a Fenian uncle, while his socialist spark came from an impoverished working-class childhood combined with his readings of Karl Marx and others.
Connolly first came to Ireland as a member of the British Army. Age 14, he forged documents to enlist to escape poverty and was posted to Cork, Dublin and later the Curragh in Kildare.
Co-founder of the Labour Party in 1912, Connolly would unite Catholic and Protestant colleagues against employers as the Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union battled for workers’ rights — strikes which were countered by the employers in the notorious Dublin Lock-out of 1913.
He served as Commandant-General Dublin Division in the GPO and was badly wounded before the evacuation to Moore Street.
James Connolly was executed by a firing squad in Kilmainham Gaol at dawn on May 12, 1916 while strapped to a chair. His final resting place is at Arbour Hill cemetery, Dublin. A gifted writer, he met Thomas MacDonagh when he was tutored by him in Irish in preparation for the University College, Dublin matriculation examinations.
MacDonagh was to become a close friend, as both were interested in poetry, religion and mysticism.
He was elected to the provisional committee of the Irish Volunteers in 1913 and later became a member of the IRB and fully committed to armed revolution. In April 1915 Plunkett went to Germany to assist Roger Casement in procuring arms and assistance for the Easter rebellion.
Sir John Maxwell (1859-1929) served with the British Army in Egypt during World War One before taking responsibility for restoring civil order in Ireland during the Easter Rising of 1916.
Maxwell received a commission into the British Army in 1879, graduating from Sandhurst. He served thereafter in Egypt before acting as Pretoria's military governor.
Maxwell was promoted to Major-General in 1906 before returning to Egypt in command of British forces stationed there between 1908-12. By the time the First World War broke out in August 1914 Maxwell had reached the rank of Lieutenant-General.