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Copy of Paul T. Costa, Jr. & Robert McCrae

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Dea Safirahilda

on 19 May 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Paul T. Costa, Jr. & Robert McCrae

Paul T. Costa, Jr. & Robert R. McCrae
Pre-"Big Five"
Graduating psychology in Boston University

Adoring Cattell's psychometric technique

Had to work on factor-analysis alone. His former Professor was a clinician psychologist with no interest on trait theory

Moreover, throughout 60's-70's, Trait Theory was not American's ortgeist (see:
Rotter & Mischel
"Big Five" Destiny
Achieving his Ph.D in 1975

Worked as
James Fozard
's research assistant at the Normative Aging Study at the Veterans Administration Outpatient Clinic in Boston

Fozard referred McCrae to
Paul T. Costa, Jr.
, a personality psychologist from University of Massachusetts, Boston
Early Life
Born April 28, 1949 in Missouri

Youngest out of 3 children

Showing early interest on math & science

Undergraduating philosophy on MSU, yet disappointed by the open-end & non-empirical studies under the departement
Pre-"Big Five"
Published a book on humanistic personality theory with Maddi (1972)
Teaching in Harvard for two years, and University of Massachusetts from 1973-1978
Hired McCrae as his project director and co-principal investigatior for his Smoking & Personality Grant in 1976
Early Life
Born September 16, 1942 in New Hampshire
Undergraduating psychology in Clark University, 1964
Both graduating his master (1964) and Ph.D (1968) degree in University of Chicago
Interested in individual differences & nature of personality
"Big Five" Destiny
Working with McCrae in National Institute on Aging's Gerontology Research Center in Baltimore
The large, well-established datasets of adults made it ideal for Costa & McCrae to investigate the structure of personality
A Fruitful Marriage:
For almost 40 years, there has been more than 200 research articles, chapters, & books with Costa & McCrae featured:
Emerging Lives, Enduring Disposition (1984)
Revised NEO Personality Inventory (1992)
The Five-Factor Model of Personality Across Cultures (2002)
Personality in Adulthood: A Five-Factor Theory Perspective, 2nd ed. (2003)
Robert R. McCrae (1949 - ?)
Paul T. Costa, Jr. (1942 - ?)
Founding Parents of
The Five-Factor
1985- Now
Allport & Odbert (1936)
Lexical studies on "Traits"
Emerging of Trait Theory
Focusing on individual differences
Raymond B. Cattell
Forming traits into clusters and rating scales
Forming the 16 Personality Factor (16PF)
Warren T. Norman
Adopting rating scales and personality factors work of
Fiske (1949)
, and
Tupes & Christal (1961)
Finding 5 relatively orthogonal personality dimension
Hans J. Eysenck
Postulating two basic factor of personality:
Neuroticism (N)
Extraversion (E)
In the same year, Costa & McCrae met for the first time
In 1976, Eysenck added
Psychotism (P)
as the third factor
Paul Costa, Jr.
Robert McCrae
Finding third factor on human's basic personality

Openness to Experience (O)
Until around


Costa & McCrae stays with the
three factor,
two of them are based on Eysenck's early work
Lewis Goldberg
First person to use the term "Big Five"
Costa & McCrae continued with the three factors known
Paul Costa, Jr. & Robert McCrae


fourth factor

Agreeableness (A)
Later in


Conscientiousness (C)

emerged as the fifth factor

90's to 2003,
Costa, McCrae, & other colleagues continually developing what is now known as the

Five-Factor Model
Big Five
Neuroticism (N)
Extraversion (E)
High Scores:

affectionate, fun-loving, talkative, joiner, active, passionate
Low Scores:

reserved, loner, quiet, sober, passive, unfeeling
Openness to Experience (O)
High Scores:

imaginative, prefers variety, creative, original, curious, liberal
Low Scores:

down-to-earth, uncreative, conventional, prefers routine, conservative
Agreeableness (A)
High Scores:
softhearted, trusting, generous, lenient, good-natured
Low Scores:

ruthless, suspicious, antagonistic, critical, irritable
Conscientiousness (C)
High Scores:

well-organized, punctual, ambitious, conscientious, hardworking, persevering
Low Scores:

negligent, lazy, late, aimless, quitting, disorganized
Self-report Questionnaire Result
High Scores:

temperamental, anxious, emotional, self-conscious, self-pitying, vulnerable
Low Scores:

even-tempered, calm, comfortable, hardy, unemotional
Brief Description of Big Five
Agreed with Eysenck that personality is



normally distributed
Neuroticism (N) and Extraversion (E) are two strongest & most ubiquitous traits
Initials (e.g. [A]) also used into broader explanations. "E" also explains "Energy" or "Enthusiasm", "O" for "Originality", etc.
Addressed universal personality process, common dimensions of individual differences, & unique characteristic of individual
How do you describe this person's personality?
Road to Five-Factor Model
How can personality best be measured?
How many traits or personal dispositions does a single person possess?
Many researchers in the past used factor analytic to answer these questions
Most researchers agreed that only 5 dominant traits

Overview of Trait and Factor Theories

Cattel share the techniques and ideas to Costa and McCrae, but had some differences in their approaches

The Pioneering Work of
Raymond B. Cattell

Cattell’s Works and Contrast with McCrae and Costa’s

Begins by making specific observations of many individuals.
Then, calculate the related variables with correlation coefficient.
Results of these calculations require a table of correlations or matrix
To calculate large number of variables with a smaller number of more basic dimensions that’s when factor analysis must be used.
This more basic dimensions can be called traits
With the similiar fashion we can identify a number of other factors or unit of personality derived through factor analysis

Basic of Factor Analysis

Correlations of scores with factors are called factor loadings
Traits generated through factor analysis may be either unipolar or bipolar
Unipolar traits are scaled from zero to some large amount (e.g. Height, weight, etc.)
Bipolar traits extend from one pole to an opposite pole with zero as midpoint (e.g. Introversion vs. Extraversion, liberalism vs. conservatism, etc.)

Basic of Factor Analysis

The derived factors to have psychological meaning, they axes on which the scores are plotted are usually turned or rotated into a specific mathematical relationship
The rotation can be orthogonal or oblique
Five-Factor Theory favor the orthogonal rotation
Oblique method was advocated by Cattell
If the correlation in x and y are positive, increase score in x, scores on the y axis have tendency also to increase.
Note that the correlation is not perfect
Psychologically, orthogonal rotation usually results in only a few meaningful traits, whereas oblique methods ordinarily produce a larger number

Basic of Factor Analysis

Taxonomy defined as a classification of things according to their natural relationship
Taxonomies are not theories
Theories generates research, taxonomy merely supply a classification system.
Five-Factor Model (FFM) began as an attempt to identify basic personality traits
Their work soon evolved into a taxonomy
After additional work, this model became a theory that can predict and explain behavior

The Big Five: Taxonomy or Theory?

Evolution of The
Five-Factor Theory

Five Factor Model (Taxonomy)
Five Factor Theory (FFT)
Units of Five-Factors Theory
A. Core Component of Personality
1. Basic Tendencies
: Define Individual's potential and direction
2. Characteristic Adaptation
: Acquired personality that develop as people adapt to their environment
3. Self Concept
: Characteristic Adaptation
Units of Five-Factors Theory
B. Peripheral Component
1. Biological Bases
2. Objective Biography
: Everything the person does, thinks, or feels across the whole lifespan
3. External Influence
Postulates for Basic Tendencies
: Uniqueness of Individual's trait
: All personality traits are the result solely of endogenous (internal) forces
: Traits could develop and change
: Traits are organized hierarchically from narrow and specific to broad and general
Postulates for
Characteristic Adaptation
Traits affect
the way we adapt
to the change in our environment
Our responses are not always consistent with personal goal or cultural values
Basic traits may change overtime in response to biological maturation, changes in the environment or deliberate intervention
Related Research
Concept of Humanity
Trait dikaitkan dengan berbagai hal, seperti:
Physical health (Friedman & Schwartz, 2007)
Well-being (Costa & McCrae, 1980)
Kesuksesan akademik (Noftle Zyphur, Islam, & Landis, 2007)
Mood (McNiel & Fleeson, 2006)

Dilakukan pada lebih dari 10,000 mahasiswa melalui self-report questionnair, skor SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) dan GPA (atau IPK) untuk mengukur
Kecenderungan conscientiousness yg tinggi menghasilkan IPK yang tinggi
Conscientiousness pada Costa dan McCrae didefinisikan sebagai orang yang pekerja keras, terorganisasi dengan baik, dan tepat waktu (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013).

Trait & Academics
(Noftle & Robins, 2007)

Dilakukan pada 7,888 remaja di Belanda dengan menggunakan "Big Five" untuk menilai extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, dan openness Partisipan juga menjawab pertanyaan mengenai penggunaan internet, loneliness, self-esteem, dan depressive moods.
Hasil: penggunaan internet tidak ada hubungan secara langsung dengan well-being yang rendah
penggunaan Internet yang kompulsif lebih beresiko
Penggunaan internet yang kompulsif diprediksi terdapat pada orang-orang yang: more introverted, less agreeable,more neurotic

Traits, Internet Use, & Well-Being
van der Aa et. al. (2009)

Hubungan antara extraversion dan positive moods serta neuroticism dan negative moods
If you are in a bad mood but want to be in a good mood, act extraverted (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013).

Traits and Emotions
McNiel & Fleeson (2006)

Dapat digeneralisasikan karena bisa digunakan oleh semua orang (NEO-PI)
Munculnya studi-studi terkait dengan personality
Sangat mudah digunakan karena memiliki penjelasan yang singkat dan padat (parsimony)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Uniqueness vs Similarity
Biological vs Social Influence
Conscious vs Unconscious

Costa & McCrae
Disusun oleh:
Dea Safirahilda
Hilman Rizaldi
M. Nordhani
Nisrina Larasati

Cattell :
1. Used inductive method instead of deductive method for gathering data
2. Used 3 different media of observation to collect data
Person’s life record (L Data)
Self Reports (Q data) from questionnaire and other techniques
Objective tests (T data) measure performance (e.g. Intelligence, speed of respondind, etc)
3. Divided traits into common traits (shared by many) and unique traits (peculiar to one individual)
Distinguished source traits from trait indicators, or surface traits.
Classified traits into temprament, motivation, and ability.
4. Cattell’s muitifacted approach yielded 3 5 primary, or first order, traits, which measure mostly the temprament dimension of personality
Full transcript