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Chapter 14: Northern and Western Europe
Transcript of Chapter 14: Northern and Western Europe
Section 1: The British Isles
British Isles made up of two independent countries
The Republic of Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Four political regions:
Two physical regions:
Lowland Britain (Most of England)
Highland Britain (Northern England, Wales, and Scotland)
Issues and Challenges
Many groups have occupied the area:
Sequent Occupance: Settlement by successive groups of people, each group creating a distinctive cultural landscape...
The British Empire
Founded in the 1600s and 1700s
Spread of English language, Christianity, Law, sports, and other customs
Over time, most parts of the empire gained independence...
Did not win independence from British until 1921
Mid-1800s Potato Famine
1 Million died when potato crop failed several years in a row
Many migrated to the United States
Famine: Widespread shortage of food
Social life centered around eateries
President is head of state
King or Queen is head of state
Parliament makes laws, led by Prime Minister
Economy of Britain
Industrial Revolution began in Britain
Built first railroads (Early 1800s)
Built first subway system (Late 1800s)
Industrial Rise and Decline
Wool and Cotton
Trade between Britain and Colonies
1900s: Lost dominance
Inefficient and unwanted products
WWII: Nationalized industry: owned by government
Today: Most industry is privately owned
Urban Renewal or Gentrification
Oil, gas, and tourism helped economy
Traditionally based on farming
One of Europe's rapidly developing countries
Immigrants moving to Ireland for jobs
Issues and Challenges
Violence has been an issue in Northern Ireland. Irish called problems "the troubles"
Disagreement between Catholics and Protestants
Terrorist groups from both sides have killed thousands