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NTNU The role of conceptions of learning in technology-enhanced learning environments


Chin-Chung Tsai

on 23 October 2017

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Transcript of NTNU The role of conceptions of learning in technology-enhanced learning environments

The role of conceptions of learning in technology-enhanced learning environments
Taiwan high school students’ conceptions of learning science (
International Journal of Science Education,
2004, Vol. 26, 1733-1750)

Study 2
Conceptions of learning versus conceptions of web-based learning: The differences revealed by college students. (
Computers & Education,
2009, Vol. 53, 1092-1103).
Study 4
Study 6:
College students’ conceptions of context-aware ubiquitous learning: A phenomenographic analysis.
The Internet and Higher Education,
14, 137-141.
Study 5
An exploration of elementary school students’ conceptions of learning: a drawing analysis.
The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher.
Study 1
Prof Chin-Chung Tsai
Program of Learning Sciences,
National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan

Co-Editor, Computers & Education
Editor, International Journal of Science Education

A fundamental issue
How students conceptualize “learning”?
How do students think about “learning” or “what is learning”?
101 elementary school students (51 boys and 50 girls, aging from 10-12.)
Data collection:

Conceptions of learning
120 Taiwan high school students
Data collection:
Data analysis method:
phenomenographic analysis
Categories of conceptions of learning science

Learning science as memorizing

Learning science as preparing for tests

Learning science as calculating and practicing
tutorial problems

Learning science as the increase of knowledge

Learning science as applying

Learning science as understanding

Learning science as seeing in a new way
83 Taiwanese college students with some
web-based learning experiences.
●Data collection:
Conceptions of learning
Conceptions of web-based learning
Students’ conceptions of learning and conceptions of web-based learning (n = 83).
The association between students’ conceptions of learning and conceptions of web-based learning (n = 83).
Major Findings
● The conceptions of web-based learning were
often more sophisticated than those of

This study also found that the more
sophisticated conceptions of we-based
learning were positively associated with the
self-efficacy of learning in web-based context.
A following-up study (Learning and Instruction,
20, 72-83. 2010) also indicated that students
conceptions of technology-enhanced learning
also related to their approaches to learning.
● The implementation of web-based instruction
may be a potential avenue for promoting
students’ conceptions of learning.

● Sample:
23 Taiwan undergraduate students
● Data collection:
● Data analysis method:
Major Findings

The analysis revealed five categories of conceptions
of u-learning, including

u-learning as applications of technology

u-learning as a platform for attaining information

u-learning as a timely guide

u-learning as increase of knowledge

u-learning as active learning
Major Findings
Numerous students (n = 21, 95%) held multiple conceptions of u-learning
Figure 1. Tree of conceptions of u-learning. Note: A, Applications of technology; P, A platform for attaining information; T, A timely guide; I, Increase of knowledge; L, Active learning.
Effects of different forms of physiology instruction on the development of students’ conceptions of and approaches to science learning. (
Advances in Physiology Education
, 2012, Vol. 36,42-47.)
● Sample:
79 Taiwanese college students
● Quasi-experimental study

● Internet-assisted instruction group (46 students)
● Traditional instruction group (33 students)
● Data collection:


● Conceptions of Learning Science questionnaire

Memorizing, Testing, Calculating and Practicing, Increase of

Knowledge, Applying, Understanding and Seeing in a New Way.

● Approaches to Learning Science questionnaire

Deep motive, Deep strategy, Surface motive, Surface strategy
Future research

Conceptions of learning

Different usages of innovative technologies

Different cultural groups

Relationships with learning processes and

How to foster students’ conceptions of

(perhaps, by properly using technologies)
Major Findings

The students in the internet-assisted instruction
group showed less agreement than the traditional
instruction group in the less advanced
conceptions of learning science (such as learning
as memorizing and testing).

The internet-assisted instruction group expressed
more orientation toward the approaches of deep
motive and deep strategy than the traditional
instruction group.
Cross-sectional study of conceptions of learning
mommy, can you teach me how to sweep?
I am learning drawing in the classroom,
I feel so happy!
Looking at the teacher lecturing, I'm so bored
like building a house, one by one
exam paper
Before a test
After a test
Life is bright
Life is dark
learning is writing down what the teacher says,
and don't talk to classmates
Creating a better life
Newly learned
Learning = increase thinking, knowledge and more
Learning from
student:take exam
student:take notes
teacher: assign homework
student: hand in homework
teacher:up stage
student:sit down
Isaac Newton
pen & book
When mom sees report card
get report card
don't forget to memorize them
Parents get angry
A framework describing the variations of students’ conceptions of learning science
Any contextual differences?
What were conceptions of learning and conceptions of learning science expressed by the students in a different and unique educational context?
Study 3
Cram school students’ conceptions of learning and learning science (
International Journal of Science Education
, 2008, Vol. 30, 353-375)
● Sample:
45 cram school students

(around 14-year-old)
● Data collection:
The distributions of students’ conceptions of learning and learning science
Major Findings

Most students conceptualized learning science as
memorizing school knowledge, preparing for tests,
or practicing tutorial problems and processing

Further analysis of student interview responses
suggested that the students held a quantitative
view of learning science and they tended to
atomize school knowledge while learning science.

Their motivation for learning was mainly driven by
external factors, such as examination scores, and
they probably employed a surface approach to
12th grade
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Learning from
12th grade
read in detail
get a perfect score
No cellphone, novels, music
checking exam date
ask teacher
12th grade
take note
motivate myself
● How about teachers’ conceptions
of technology-enhanced learning?

Study 7
Taiwanese high school teachers' conceptions of mobile learning, Computers & Education, 115, 82-95, 2017
Fifteen senior high school (Grades 10-12) teachers from
five schools in northern Taiwan involved in a national
mobile learning program participated in this study.

● Method:
Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. This
qualitative study describes the results of a phenomenographic
analysis of teachers’ conceptions of mobile learning.


The conception categories form a hierarchy and show a
trajectory moving from teacher-/content-oriented to
learner-/learning-oriented conceptions.

In addition, technology was almost invisible in the more
sophisticated conceptions.

meeting students’ preferences

conducting classes with efficiency

invigorating and enhancing learning

parting from traditional teaching

focusing on student ownership

extending learning beyond school.

Six qualitatively different conceptions of mobile learning were obtained:
Study 8:
Learning illustrated: An exploratory cross-sectional drawing analysis of students’ conceptions of learning. Journal of Educational Research. (in press)

A total of 1,067 Taiwanese students in Grades 2, 4,
6, 8, 10, and 12 participated in this study

How technology may play a role in students'
conceptions of learning
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