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Transcript of Referencing APA
Works Websites Digital Media Social Networks/ blogs Books Different
Encyclopaedias Pictures Video Sound/Music Referencing is an important skill to learn. It serves multiple purposes, and is an essential skill for life. Alot of people care. Doctors, lawyers, teachers, builders, nurses... almost every profession requires referencing. It is important because: So what is it? According to Dictionary.com, referencing is: 1. an act or instance of referring. 2. a mention; allusion. 3. something for which a name
or designation stands; denotation. (Dictionary.com, 2011) This is an in text citation reference It basically means that referencing is acknowledging anything that teaches you something new. For example, thanking your teacher for the awesome lesson you just had, is acknowledging their work. Referencing is acknowleding other peoples work. Telling your friends and family about what your teacher has taught, is referencing them. It is acknowledging their work. 1. It allows us to give credit to other peoples work 2. It allows other people to find the same work you have referenced 3. They make sure other people know you have read and understood what you are trying to say... referencing means your thoughts and ideas are supported by other people. There are many types of referencing styles. They include: APA (which means American Psychology Association), Harvard, Footnotes and many more. Each style has been developed by academic institutions such as universities. Today, we are focusing on APA as a referencing style. In this focus we are going to look at how we reference three different works/resources We will be looking at referencing 1. Books 2. Websites 3. Creative works Referencing anything requires you to follow a set pattern/format. Additionally, there are a many ways you reference particular materials. When referencing books you need to consider whether the book is it printed or online? You need to ask, whether the book you are referencing is the first edition. Some books have up to 27 editions. Each one is different. Therefore, you need to reference the right edition. You may also need to ask whether the book is a dictionary or encyclopaedia. Such questions are important as the answers will tell you which format/pattern you need to use when referencing. Lets look at... The regular old book is pretty easy to reference. Once you have identified whether it is an e-book (digital/online) or a printed book (on paper), then all you need to do is follow the following format/pattern. Neal, M.J. (2005). Medical pharmacology at a glance. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Lets brake it down... Neal, M.J. (2005). Medical pharmacology at a glance. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Author Surname Author Initals Year book was published Full stops Comma Name of book. NOTE: Book is meant to be in italics Full stop Place of Publication Publisher Comma Full stop Colon Can you see how referencing is very specific and requries great attention to detail? Referencing books in different editions is imporatant. This is because an edition of one book may completely differ from the other. For example, one edition may have different page numbers to another edition of the same book. Therefore, in your reference, you need to show what edition you are using. Lets have a look... Neal, M.J. (2005). Medical pharmacology at a glance (5th ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Neal, M.J. (2005). Medical pharmacology at a glance (5th ed.) . Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Author Surname Author Initals Year book was published Full stops Comma Name of book. NOTE: Book is meant to be in italics Full stop Place of Publication Publisher Comma Full stop Colon Brackets Edition Place of Publication Another example might be that, one edition of a book may contain different information to another edition. If you reference the wrong edition, you risk referencing the wrong information! When referencing dictionaries or encyclopaedias, you need to consider a variety of things. Now days, thanks to the internet, alot of people use online dictionaries. They are referenced differently to printed editions. This is easy to determine: If you are reading the dictionary on the computer screen, it is a digital copy. If you are reading it from a book in your hands, it is printed. Diazepam. (2010). In Australian Medicines Handbook. Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://amh.hcn.net.au.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/view.php?page=chapter18/monographdiazepam.html#diazepam Lets look at how you reference both If you are referenceing a printed dictionary/encyclopaedia, you do it like this... Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, ILL: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, ILL: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author Surname Author Initals Date Article title/ Word Name of Dictionary/Encyclopaedia NB: "In The" Volume Number Page Numbers Place of Publication Publisher Full Stops Commas Full Stops Comma Colon Full Stop Brackets Brackets Notice how much more attention to detail is needed when referencing something a little more complex then a book? So lets look at how you format an online dictionary or encyclopaedia. Lets take a closer look When referencing an online dictionary/encyclopaedia, you need to do it like this Diazepam. (2010). In Australian Medicines Handbook. Retrieved March 10, 2010 fromhttp://amh.hcn.net.au.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/view.php?page=chapter18/monographdiazepam.html#diazepam Lets take another closer look Article title/Word Year of publication Name of dictionary/encyclopaedia Date retrieved URL: This can be copied and pasted from web browser Full stops Brackets Full stop Comma Lets look at... Creative works can vary in form, shape and sound. Anything from pictures, symbols and coloured lines, to music, video and sounds can be classified as creative work. If a creative work inspires you, it has changed the way you feel, think and judge your own thoughts. Therefore, they must be referenced... You may find creative works on Youtube, Google Images, the radio, television or in newspapers and magazines. If creative works give you an idea, then you need to reference them. This is so other people can discover the same ideas you found in your experiences. We are going to focus on referencing: 1. Pictures 2. Video 3. Sound/Music Lets look at... Pictures too come in a variety of formats. The can also be print or digital. Again, it is ease to tell the two forms apart. If you view the image on a screen, it is digital. If you are viewing it from a book or magazine, then it is a printed copy. Since both forms of pictures are abundant, we will look at both ways of referencing them. So, if you are referencing a printed picture, you would follow the following format/pattern: Meyer, S. E. (1997). A treasury of the great children's book illustrators. New York, NY: Abrams. Meyer, S. E. (1997). A treasury of the great children's book illustrators. New York, NY: Abrams. Lets take a closer look Author Surname Author Initals Year of Publication Name of book Place of publication Publisher Full stops Comma Full stop Comma Colon Full stops If on the other hand, you were referencing an online picture, you would follow this format/pattern McQueen, Alexander. (2010). Fall 2010 Ready-to-Wear collection [Image]. Retrieved June 2, 2010, from http:// www.style.com/fashionshows/fullscreen/F2010RTW-AMCQUEEN/ Again, lets take a closer look McQueen, Alexander. (2010). Fall 2010 Ready-to-Wear collection [Image]. Retrieved June 2, 2010, fromhttp:// www.style.com/fashionshows/fullscreen/F2010RTW-AMCQUEEN/ Artist Surname Artist Full name Year work was created Name of work NB: "[Image]" Date you retrieved the picture URL: Can be copied from website Commas Full Stops Brackets Square brackets Full Stop Video includes anything on DVD and VHS (video cassette). Resources from YouTube all under the catagory of digital media, not video. Therefore, you reference YouTube resources differently. Will we look at how you reference these materials later. In the mean time, lets look at how you would reference a video... When referencing video, you need to follow the following format/pattern Atherden, G. (Writer), Featherstone, D. (Director), & Pringle, J. (Producer). (1986). Babakiueria [DVD]. Sydney, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corp. Lets take a closer look Atherden, G. (Writer), Featherstone, D. (Director), & Pringle, J. (Producer). (1986). Babakiueria [DVD]. Sydney, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corp. Contributors and their roles Year of production Name of Viedo Video format (DVD or VHS) Place of production Publisher Full stop & Commas NB: All contributors roles need brackets. Full stop Brackets Square brackers Full stop Comma Colon Full stop Referencing music is not as easy as you would think. You need to consider whether you are referencing a song, or an entire album You also need to include producers Similar to video, you need to include format, i.e. CD, MP3 or another file type. This can get difficult, as your Mp3 player or Ipad may not have the required information. If that is the case: Google it. Once you have all the required information, all you need to do is follow the following format/pattern Beck, (Singer-songwriter) & Godrich, N. (Producer). (2002). Paper tiger. On Sea change [CD]. Santa Monica, CA: Geffen. which looks like... Beck, (Singer-songwriter) & Godrich, N. (Producer). (2002). Paper tiger. On Sea change [CD]. Santa Monica, CA: Geffen. Contributor name and their role
(in this case also singer and songwriter) Producer name and their role in brackets Year of Publication Song title Album Format [CD] Place of publication Publisher Comma NB: '&' not 'and' Comma Full Stop Full stop Full Stop Comma Colon Full Stop This is where it gets tough... The internet has sooooooooo much information, and so may ways of delivering that information, that it almost has infinite ways of referencing. For example, if you look at an online article from a newspaper website, you can reference any of the following: 1. Advertisments 2. The article 3. Reader comments 4. Video reports 5. Surveys And that is just looking at news websites... There are also: 1. Government Websites 2. Educational Websites 3. Business Websites 4. Shopping Websites, e.g. Ebay 5. Gaming Websites And each on of these websites needs a specific reference format/pattern. Futhermore, within these websites can be any of these... That means that referencing although strict, may require some flexibility from you. But be sure that you have it right by asking your teacher or a librarian... Today, we are going to look at: 1. A standard website 2. Digital Media (Youtube or podcasts) 3. YouTube Cooper, H.L. (2010). A brief history of tactile writing systems for readers with blindness and visual impairments. Retrieved fromhttp://www. tsbvi.edu/seehear/spring06/history.htm Websites are not that difficult to reference Like all references we have seen so far, they only require attention to detail So lets get referencing! A website reference looks something like this... A closer look? Cooper, H.L. (2010). A brief history of tactile writing systems for readers with blindness and visual impairments. Retrieved from http://www. tsbvi.edu/seehear/spring06/history.htm Author Surname Publication Date Author Initals Website heading/title NB: 'Retrieved from' Web URL Full Stop Full Stop Brackets Full Stop Lets look at... CSIRO. (2009, May 25). CSIRO - Making a difference [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=t_1mip1iS70 Hammond, G. (2007). Lowering our carbon footprint [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from www. bath.ac.uk/lmf/fileinfo/17465 Digital media is any material you can access exclusively from the internet or a computer. For example, a clips accessed from YouTube can only be easily accessed via an computer and internet feed. Additionally, podcasts of radio segments are digital media as they are made publically accessable via the internet. There a many types of digital media. This includes 1.Art 2. Games 3. Internet streamed video (YouTube) 4.Internet Radio 5.Digital Photography So lets look at how you reference YouTube CSIRO. (2009, May 25). CSIRO - Making a difference [Video file]. Retrieved from http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_1mip1iS70 Lets take a closer look Now lets look at podcasts Hammond, G. (2007). Lowering our carbon footprint [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from www. bath.ac.uk/lmf/fileinfo/17465 Author Name (Company in this example) Precise date of publication Name of digital file Type of file (video) NB: 'Retrieved from' URL: Can be copied from web browser Full Stop Full Stop Comma Full Stop Square brackets Brackets Author Surname Author Initals Year of Publication Name of digital file Digital file type (podcast) URL: Can be copied from browser NB: 'Retrieved from' Comma Full Stop Full Stop Brackets Square Bracket Square Bracket Full Stop Depending on how these works are stored depends on whether they are digital. If they are on a computer or internet, they are digital Facebook, Twitter and other social networking sites create their own problems when referencing. This is becuase information held on someone's wall may not be visible to everyone. This means that people who read your work and the information in it, may not be able to find where you actually retrieved it from. However difficult referencing social networking sites are, it does not mean that you can't. So lets look how you reference facebook Nonja. (2010). In Facebook [Fan page]. Retrieved March 17, 2010, from
http:// www.facebook.com/pages/Nonja/190010092116 Nonja. (2010). In Facebook [Fan page]. Retrieved March 17, 2010, from
http:// www.facebook.com/pages/Nonja/190010092116 A closer look? Username or Group Name Page type Year the information was published NB: 'In Facebook' Retrieved Month Day, Year URL: Can be copied from web browser NB: 'from' Full Stop Full Stop Full Stop Brackets Commas And here is how you reference blogs Becker, G. (2011, January 2). Implications of international comparisons of student performance [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/ Becker, G. (2011, January 2). Implications of international comparisons of student performance [Web log post]. Retrieved from http: //uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/ Author Surname Author Inital Publication Year, month day Blog title Type of blog NB: 'Retrieved from' URL: Can be copied from web browser Comma Full Stop Brackets Full Stop Full Stop Square brackets Comma And that leads to disaster You should reference creative works when they inspire you to think a certain way, or when they give you ideas that support what you think. Someone gave him a bad reference.