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Seigneurial System of New France

Land tracts and their purposes.
by

Yashan Chelliahpillai

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Seigneurial System of New France

The Seigneural System of New France Direct representative of King of France
Saw to all defensive and diplomatic affairs
There were 13 of them under 2 kings, after the post was established in 1663
Was the "King" of New France
Vice-regal post in New France
Last regal post overall Governor GEneral Acted like the police force
Made inspections in New France
After Jean Talon's census in 1666, they dealt with census records too
Responsible for economic affairs, relationships with First Nations people, seigneurialism, justice, finance, and day-to-day affairs Intendant In charge of religious affairs and education, as well as charity and hospital care
Part of secular clergy
Could only be male
Usually from a noble upbringing Bishop By: Yashan Chelliahpillai,
Stefan Tursic,
and
Myles Latour Briefing of Roles All are one of the 9 members of the Sovereign council, so they are appointed by the king. Modern Equivalent: Minister of Health and Education Equivalent today: Police force, Minister of Justice, and Minister of Finance Equivalent Today: Governor General Other people in the community: Habitants
Women
Seigneur
Miller
Priest
First Nations Habitant Women Worked on seigneurie
Agents contact them in France to go to New France
Paid fees:
Rente (in cens), which goes to King
Church tithe for upkeep of church and priest, started in 1670
Money for mill
Percent of crops
Part of their fish stocks
Responsible for their piece of land
Had to keep it clean, etc. Habitants Were in charge of cooking and making clothes
Used a large oven in front of the house to cook some foods
Fireplaces could be used to cook
Women were expected to marry early, at 16
Had rights in New France
Could own a seigneurie, then specify the division of the land on her will Women Seigneur Ran the seigneurie
Responsible for the land
Didn’t own it; all of it belonged to the King of France
Hired habitants to work on the seigneurie
Could be charged by intendant if land wasn’t properly maintained Seigneur Church A church was a requirement in a seigneurie, because the habitants were Roman Catholic and very religious
There were two clergies to the church, the secular and regular clergy
The secular clergy would be the bishop and the parish priests
They were usually of a noble family
The regular clergy contained regular people, male or female
There were people in this clergy called Jesuit priests, who tried to convert First Nations to Christianity, more specifically, Catholicism
Nuns were people who educated others about Christianity and cared for the sick
In a seigneurie, the church would have some land for itself
The priest would live there church Largest group of peoples are the Iroquois
Others include Wyandot, also known as Huron
Called the St. Lawrence River “Great Water Body”
Most weren’t hostile, or New France would have a low chance of flourishing fIRST nATIONS First Nations A chapel for the Catholics
A steam-powered mill to grind grain and flour Places to go The British Are Coming! After Battle of Plains of Abraham, British took over Quebec
Seigneuries were an obstacle, but the Quebec Act of 1774 retrieved French civil law, and therefore seigneuries
British and Scottish people purchased land on seigneuries Conquest Abolished by Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada on June 22, 1854
Finally abolished after Quebec earned money with provincial bonds
New court created, Seigneural Court, to answer questions about economic and property changes Aftermath Food
Clothing
Shelter Daily Life Food Settlers ate lots of meat from livestock (pork, beef, etc.)
First Nations taught them a lot about getting food
Produced as much of own food as possible
Used salt or lime juice to preserve foods (could also smoke them)
Hunted native game (moose, deer, birds, etc.)
Habitants could make whole wheat bread
They’d also go trolling by the St. Lawrence River
Meals
Breakfast in morning
Lunch (dinner, as they called it) at 4 p.m.
Dinner (supper, as they called it) after work, so about 8 p.m. or later Food Houses of wooden logs and mortar in between
Later, houses could be made of stone
Slanted roof for precipitation to slide off
Habitants had a small house with primitive furnishings and 1 room
Rope bed
Root cellar (acts as a refrigerator)
Chest with belongings (maybe)
1 table and chair, or not even that
Seigneur had large, luxurious house Shelter Shelter Clothing Made of animal hides, wool, or hemp
Woolen underclothes to keep warm in winter and absorb perspiration in summer
Women wore long dresses and several skirts, and a small white cap called a bonnet
Men wore leather breeches, woven shirts, and leather jackets
Children only wore underclothes and a knee-length tunic
Often wore caps called tuques
Wealthy people in Québec wore wigs and clothes wove from fine silk Clothing Time Period: 1672-1674 Saves land
Keeps land tracts organized
Long rectangles have all necessities (water, crop-planting space, a stone road for a second mode of transport, space to build a house) Reasons for division
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