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Copy of Fungus

Bio p4
by

Gromer Gromenauer Nauer

on 2 December 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Fungus

Fungi
Parasitic fungi
They obtain their nutrients from living organisms (living plants, living animals...)

Parasitic fungi cause damage and diseases.
Kingdom
CHARACTERISTICS
They are
eukaryotic
(cells with
nucleus
)

About number of cells...
2- UNICELLULAR O PLURICELLULAR?
3- HETEROTROPH OR AUTOTROPH?
Saprophytic Fungi
Fungi are heterotroph
Examples of saprophytic fungi
Most
pluricellular
.


Some
unicellular
.
For example:
yeasts
.

They obtain their nutrients from dead organic matter (fallen leaves, dead trees, dead animals...)
Fungi are classified by the way they obtain their nutrients:
- Saprophytic fungi.
- Parasitic fungi.
- Symbiotic fungi.

More examples of parasitic fungi
Some parasitic fungi attack human cells (skin, nails...) to obtain their nutrients, causing diseases.
Defining Characteristics
Cellular Level
Fungal cells are eukaryotic and some have multiple nuclei
They may be unicellular or multicellular
Multicellular fungal cells are very long and thin, and they create filaments called hyphae, which create the mycelium
The cells walls consists of chitin
DNA analysis proves that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants
Feeding Habits
Fungi are heterotrophic
They digest before ingesting
They store their energy in the form of glycogen
They can feed through four different ways:
- Parasitic
- Predatory
- Mutualistic
- Saprobial
Reproduction
They can reproduce sexually, asexually, or parasexually
Some can reproduce using multiple methods
Other Characteristics
They can live on land or in water
They are stationary organisms
There is great variation in size: fungi can be microscopic or cover and area of ten square kilometers
Amanita Muscaria – The Common Toadstool
Symbiotic fungi
Symbiotic fungi obtain nutrients from living organisms (plants, algae...) and both benefit.
Fungi help the other organisms and the other organisms help fungi.
Lichens are formed by two types of organisms: a fungus and an alga.
4-How do fungi reproduce?
Fungi reproduction
Lichens: Fungi + Algae
Reproduction
Most fungi reproduce by releasing microscopic cells called "spores". When the spore germinates, a new fungus grows.
Parts of a fungus
The parts of a fungus
Fungi and mushrooms
Penicillium Candidum
Penicillium candidum is an essential fungi used for making cheeses such as brie and camembert. Where some species of penicillium are responsible for the spoilage of food such as apples, P. candidum is responsible for the spoilage of milk. These fungi commonly live in soil and prefer cool, moderate climates
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Eurotiomycetes
Order: Eurotiales
Family: Trichocomaceae
Genus: Penicillium
Species: P. Candidum
Anatomical characteristics of P. candidum:
mycelium, which is responsible for giving mold its fuzzy appearance. Mycelium is a large grouping of hyphae, which may be branched.
Hyphae consist of one or more cells surrounded by a tubular cell wall.
The major structural compound in the cell wall is chintin; whereas in the cell wall of plants it is cellulose.
In between each cell in a hyphae is a septum, which usually has holes which allow ribosomes, mitochondria and sometimes nuclei to move between the cells.
anatomical characteristics
Physiological characteristics of P. candidum:
Excretes enzymes into the surrounding organic material, in this case milk products.
Which break down the organic molecules into simpler molecules, i.e. sugars and absorbs monomers (sugars) through the cell wall.
Physiological Characteristics
Another is that candidum produces asexually through non-mobile spores generated through mitosis, these spores disperse as dust. The haploid spores are genetically identical to the haploid parent, therefore creating an identical organism.
Fungi may also undergo sexual reproduction, producing an asci containing eight unicellular ascospores. The ascopores are created by a meiotic cell division followed by a mitotic cell division.
As well, whereas most organisms have hair which grows from the root, the hyphae, which is the structure of the fungus, grows from the tip.
Because fungi do not have tissue structures, gas exchange in P. candidum occurs through the cell wall.
The species of Penicillium have key adaptations that help them to survive. One example would be that they excrete penicillin into the surrounding environment to kill off competing bacteria, therefore it has a higher chance of survival and is more likely to reproduce. It has also adapted to grow outdoors & indoors, and can grow on most surfaces as long as the humidity level is 85% or over and the moisture content of the substance is greater than 3%.
Adaptations
5- OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
Fungi live in damp and dark places.

Some fungi are eatable and some fungi are toxic.

1-EUKARYOTIC OR PROCARYOTIC?
Yeasts:
unicellular and microscopic fungi
A yeast
Autotrophs
:
They make their own food from simple substances. They are usually green, use light energy and do photosynthesis.
Heterotrophs:
They obtain nutrients from other living things.
This is not for me...
Parasitic fungi obtaining nutrients from a living tree
The white spots are parasitic fungi growing on living leaves
Parasitic fungi on living plants (corn in this case)
For example, some fungi help plants to grow.
Root without symbiotic fungi
Root with symbiotic fungi
Not all fungi are damaging!!
Saprophytic fungi (and bacteria) play an important role in nature: they are the main
decomposers
in the ecosystems. Without bacteria and fungi, we would not be able to survive on our planet because dead organisms and garbage would accumulate!
Mrs. Alga is ready to meet Mr. Fungus
Mr. Fungus is ready to meet Mrs. Alga
The lichen is created by a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an alga.
Stone with lichens
Thank you, friend fungus!
You help me to grow!!
Thank you, friend pine!
You help me to get
food!!
SYMBIOTIC FUNGI
Spore print
Fungus releasing spores
The fungus is formed by lots of microscopic filaments called
"
hyphae".
The mass of hyphae forms the
"mycelium"
.
Most of the time, we cannot see the mycelium because it is growing through the soil -
just like the roots of plants.
Hyphae
Mycelium
When conditions are right, the mycelium forms a reproductive structure that we can see: the
fruiting body
.

The fruiting body is the fruit of the fungus
- just like apples are the fruits of the apple tree
.

Fruiting bodies have different shapes, colours and sizes. Fruiting bodies that have a cap and a stalk are called
"mushrooms"
.

The function of mushrooms is to form and to release the spores. In other words, the function of mushrooms is the reproduction.
Mushroom
(Fruiting body)
Mycelium
F
U
N
G
U
S
Spores
Fall is the best time of the year
to go mushroom hunting.
Mmmm... pizza with eatable fungi
"Amanita muscaria"
,
a toxic fungus.
"
Amanita phalloides"
: a highly toxic fungus.
It is responsible for most fatal fungal poisonings.
A man going mushroom hunting
Damp (with water)
Dark (lack of light)
Some important groups of fungi are:
Yeasts
Moulds
Fungi that form mushrooms
The end
Full transcript