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The Amazing World of Silicon
Transcript of The Amazing World of Silicon
Silicosis (lung disease caused by prolonged exposure to silica dust found within the sands used for making glass)(Env. Lit. Council)
Irritation of the skin, eyes, lungs...etc
Chronic respiratory problems (scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and sarcoidosis.)
Microbacterial or fungal infections (tuberculous and nontuberculous
bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema(Lenntech)
Silicon does not have any severe or harmful effects on the environment, however during the process of extracting silicon from silicon dioxide, carbon monoxide is created as a byproduct, thus polluting the atmosphere. Nevertheless, this is such a small source of atmospheric carbon, compared to the amount generated through the combustion of fossil fuels. (Env. Lit. Council) SiO2 + 2C ----- Si + 2CO Society Benefits There are numerous ways as to how the element silicon is beneficial to society. One primary example is using silicon as a alternate source of energy. Photovoltaic cells in solar panels are made from slivers of silicon crystals that react when in contact with the sun's rays and absorbs energy, storing it for later use. Another benefit is using ultrapure silicon to create silicon chips (otherwise known as computer chips). Silicon chips have become highly important within our developing society as they are the basis of modern technology, everything from cellphones to computers to large industries.(Silicon) An "inside" look at one of the most valued specialized materials ever known to man!!! The Amazing World of Silicon! Where It All Began... In 1789, a French chemist named Antoine Lavoisier proposed how quartz (crystalline silicon dioxide) could possibly be the oxide of an element that was yet to be identified as silicon.(Silicon)
Silicon was first introduced to the world in 1824 by a Swedish chemist named Jöns Jakob Berzelius. (Silicon)
He produced a sample of silicon by reacting potassium fluorosilicate with potassium, which produced a brown solid material. (He had called this resulting product "silicium")(Silicon)
The name "silicon" wasn't created until the year 1831 by a Scottish chemist named Thomas Thomson, who believed that because of the element's similarities to nonmetals, it should have a more suitable ending, such as "-on" instead of "-cium". (Silicon) Advameg Inc. "Chemistry Explained." Silicon, Chemical Element. N.p., 2012. Web. 09 Nov. 2012.
Dow Corning Corp. "Degradation of Silicone Polymers in Nature." Dow Corning. Health Environment & Regulatory Affairs (HERA), 1998. Web. 08 Nov. 2012.
The Environmental Literacy Council. "Silicon." The Environmental Literacy Council. The Environmental Literacy Council, 2002. Web. 08 Nov. 2012.
Fagas, Giorgos, Merid Legesse, and Michael Nolan. "Surface Orientation Effects in Crystalline/amorphous Silicon Interfaces." Surface Orientation Effects in Crystalline/amorphous Silicon Interfaces - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. RSC Publishing, 25 Sept. 2012. Web. 08 Nov. 2012.
Ferrotec (USA) Corporation. "SiFusion - Physical Properties of Silicon." SiFusion - Physical Properties of Silicon. N.p., 2001–2012. Web. 07 Nov. 2012.
Lenntech B.V. "Silicon - Si." Silicon (Si). N.p., 1998-2011. Web. 07 Nov. 2012.
University College London. "New silicon memory chip may offer super-fast memory." ScienceDaily, 18 May 2012. Web. 8 Nov. 2012
"Silicon." - Uses, Pictures, Characteristics, Properties, Periodic Table. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Nov. 2012.
Winter, Mark. "Silicon." WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements. University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK, 1993-2012. Web. 07 Nov. 2012. Jöns Jakob Berzelius Antoine Lavoisier Thomas Thomson Physical Properties Some of the Physical properties of Silicon include the following: Crystalline Form Structure:Diamond; occurs in a randomized pattern (Fargas)
Melting point:1687 K (1414 °C)
Boiling point:3538 K (3265 °C)
Density: 2.33 g/cm3
State: solid, metalloid
Texture:Brittle, metallic lusture(Lenntech) Amorphous Form Life Cycle of Silicon Found within the depths of the Earth's Crust, silicon is one of the most abundant electro-positive elements. Silicon is extracted by heating silicon dioxide with carbon, which further replaces the silicon in the compound. The silicon product formed in this reaction becomes 96 to 98 percent pure. Once extracted, this raw material is combined to create intermetallic compounds to be used as alloy integrals which provides more resistance against other metals such as aluminum (Silicon combines with 64 of 96 stable elements on the periodic table). From there, silicon may undergoes a variety of processes to create different materials. For instance, photovoltaic cells are made from thin slices of silicon crystals which are of electronic grade.(Lenntech) The final degradation process for silicon involves the consumer products to enter wastewater treatment plants where the silicon is broken up into the excess waste called "sludge" and is further destroyed, entombed or reused for land surfaces (such as golf courses, woodlands, and agricultural fields) as a fertilizer. (Dow Corning) Silicon Research and Future Applications According to the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and by UCL (University College London), a new silicon memory chip was developed by the researchers at UCL. It is said that this new "Resistive RAM" memory chip is made from pure silicon oxide and can operate in ambient conditions, which will further improve the speed as well as increase the memory storage capacity. Also, the new chip requires less space and energy, has no need for a vaccum in order to operate (which also makes it cheaper and more durable) and raises the possibility of transparent memory chips for the use of touch screens and memory devices. As described in a recent paper in The Journal of Applied Physics, silicon oxide is used to operate a switch in resistance much more efficiently than previous attempts. The silicon atoms rearrange to form filaments of silicon that become less resistive,and thus alternate from one state to another. Dr.Tony Kenyon of the UCL claims,"Our ReRAM memory chips need just a thousandth of the energy and are around a hundred times faster than standard Flash memory chips." Researchers are now looking into using the resistance properties from this material to generate a fully-operating computer processor. (UCL) Quantum Mechanical Model of Silicon Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 or [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Atomic Radius: 110 pm
1st Ionization Energy: 786.5 kJ mol-1
Electron Affinity: 133.6 kJ mol-1.
Reactivity: relatively inactive; mild reactivity with NaOH to form silicates(Winter) Below is a three-dimensional model of silicon dioxide, the origin of silicon.
NOTE: VESPR theory was used to create this model The shape of this molecule resembles that of a linear shape because there are two bonding pairs and no lone pairs, for a total of two pairs. Chemical Structure and Properties 180* Si O O SiO2 + 2C ----- Si + 2CO Symbol: Si
Atomic #: 14
Atomic Mass: 28.0855 g.mol -1
Atomic Volume: 12.1 cm3/mol
Number of Electrons: 14
Number of Protrons: 14
Number of Neutrons: 14 (Isotopes have 15 or 16)
Isotopes: silicon-28, silicon-29, and silicon-30
Ionic Radius: 40 pm
Specific Heat (@20°C J/g mol): 0.703
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 5
Oxidation States: 4, -4 (Winter) Structure: Diamond; occurs in a repetitive pattern(Fargas)
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Melting point:1687 K (1414 °C)
Boiling point:3538 K (3265 °C)
Density: 2.33 g/cm3
Texture: Brittle, metallic lusture (Lenntech)