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Transcript of Stanislavski
Benedetti, J. (1998) Stanislavski & The Actor, Great Britain: Methuen
Benedetti, J. (2008) An Actor’s Work: A Student Guide, Oxon: Routledge
Benedetti. J (2008) An Actor’s Work : Konstanin Stanislavski. Routledge, London
Benedetti. R (2005) The Actor at Work, Nineth Edition. Pearson
Bishop. B and Jones. T (1999) Konstantin Stanislavski http://www.kryingsky.com/Stan/Biography/bot.html [accessed 7.12.12]
Carnicke. S (1998) Stanislavsky in Focus: An Acting Master For the Twenty-First Century, 2nd Edition. Routledge, London
Caldarone, M. (2004) Actions: The Actors Thesaurus , London: Larden Road
Guntern, G. (2010) The Spirit of Creativity, Maryland: University Press of America
Hapgood, E. (1990) Stanislavski an Actor’s Handbook, London: Methuen Drama
Merlin, B. (2003) Konstantin Stanislavsky, Oxon: Routledge
Merlin, B. (2007) The Complete Stanislavsky Toolkit, Larden Road: London
Miles, P. (1993) Chekhov on the British Stage, Cambridge: Trumpington Street
Moore. (1991) Stanislavski Revealed.
Richards. C (1995) At Work with Grotowski on Physical Actons. Routledge, London and New York
Sawoski. P (2012) The Stanislavski System: Growth and Methodology, Second Edition http://homepage.smc.edu/sawoski_perviz/Stanislavski.pdf [accessed 5.12.12]
Zarrilli. P (2009) Psychophysical Acting: An Intercultural Approach After Stanislavski. Routledge: London “[...] an actor does not actually believe in the truth of the events of stage, only in the imaginative creation of them.” (Sawoski 7:2012) “[...] ‘if’ [...] provides the first impetus for the further development of the creative process in a role.” (Benedetti. J 52:2008) “[...] ‘if’ is the lever which lifts us out of the world of reality into the world where we can be creative.” (Benedetti. J 48:2008) “[...] ‘magic if’s [are] provoking instantaneous, instinctive actions.” (Benedetti. J 49:2008) . Many of Stan’s theories and practices work on the principle of a collaboration or unison. Bits "Stanislavski saw, or had a vision of, a form of acting that brimmed with life." (x:2008) "Stanislavski believed that theatre has a powerful influence on people and that its responsibility is to bring important ideas to life in great plays." (Moore 1:1991) “The Given Circumstances, just like ‘if’ are suppositions, ‘products of the imagination’” (Benedetti 53:2008) Dead!
A man! Stanislavski’s focus was on the process rather than the final result. ‘Stanislavsky knew precisely and always what the questions were he was trying to answer, but his solutions were always tentative, temporary, and developing.’ (Leach, 2004:24) ‘Just as you can’t eat a turkey all in one go (you have to cut it into wings, legs and breast, and then into smaller, chewable pieces, neither can you ‘devour’ an entire play at one sitting. As actors, you have to divide it into bit-size chunks or ‘units’ (Merlin, 2003:53) ‘At precisely the time when Stanislavski was “placing greater emphasis on physical tasks and physical actions” in the development of his own process, “Boleslavsky stressed the importance of emotion memory, developing the technique beyond Stanislavski’s original practice’ (Benedetti, 1999:286). ‘Strasberg was perfectly aware of the differences between his teaching and Stanislavski’s, which centered on the role of Emotion Memory. In the ‘system’ the primary emphasis is on action, interaction and the dramatic situation which result in feeling Emotion Memory as a secondary, ancillary technique’ (Benedetti, xx:2008). ‘In 1897, Constantin Stanislavski and Vladimir Nenirowich-Danchenko founded the Moscow Art Theater, a company whose declared aim was to get rid of the pathetic melodramatic style of acting then fashionable in Russia and to replace it with a more sober, naturalistic approach’ (Guntern, 233: 2010). Magic "If" Given Circumstances Physical Actions A rehearsal technique focusing on taking action rather than acting. •‘The system first asks the actor to work on himself, and to begin in apparently the simplest way, by learning to relax the muscles.’ (Leach 2004:30) -This was a simple exercise that would bring about huge gain. Relaxation of the muscles became one of the Stanislavskian actors’ prime requirements, and techniques of physical relaxation were regarded as highly important.’ (Leach, 2004:25) ‘People generally do not know how to make use of the physical apparatus with which nature has endowed us. They neither know how to develop this apparatus nor keep it in order.’
(Stanislavski, 1990:29) He aimed to change this point through relaxation techniques, body conditioning and yoga. Emotional Memory 'Drawing on the emotions I experienced, for example, when my mother died to create a role, is sick and schizophrenic. If that is acting, I don't want to do it.' (Adler, S. 2000) “You should use memories of emotions to recreate them on stage, sometimes fulled by memories of sensations (smell, taste, etc).” (Stanislavsky 2008:163) “If always launches the creative act and the Given Circumstances develop if further.” (Benedetti 53:2008) “You must feel your character’s needs as if they were your own needs, select objectives that can satisfy those needs as if they were your own objectives and then do what the character does to try to win those objectives as if they were your own actions. When you have thus put yourself into the characters place, the natural process of transformation begins, and a new version of yourself, a new ‘me’ evolves.” (Benedetti 80:2005) “[...] another characteristic of ‘if’ [is that] it arouses an artist’s dynamism, which is mental rather than physical [...]” (Benedetti. J 51:2008) Where am I?
What is my specific location?
What year is it?
What relationships do I have?
What previously happened to the character before the play began? “Emotion memory is your store room as an actor, coming from your own experiences and supplemented by your “second-hand” experiences as gained from; Museums, Books, Films, Television, etc.” (Merlin, B. 2007:154) Stanislavski distinguished between rhythm as patterning of beats, and tempo pattern. He introduced a tempo rating system in which tempo was associated with life events’ (Goodridge 111:1999) There is an unbreakable bond between the action on the stage and the thing which precipitated it.’ (Stanislavski, 1990:9) He had his students continuously perform relaxation techniques such as simply laying on the floor and focus on relaxing and contracting each individual muscle tension. ‘Everything that happens on the stage has a definite purpose. All action in the theatre must have an inner justification, be logical, coherent and real… and as a result we have a truly productive activity.’ (Stanislavski, 1990:8) Stanislavski's methods and his system were highly influential. Stanislavski's system revolutionised the way we think about acting.