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Romania

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Flavia Stoia

on 21 October 2014

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Transcript of Romania

Timișoara
The nickname of Timișoara is Little Viena, due to the fact that it was part of the Austrian Empire. Having this quality, the old center of Timisoara is rich in buildings from the 19th century or older. Also, it has Hungarian, German and Serbian communities, and a new Italian comunity, being an attractive place to settle thanks to its cosmopolite character.

Timisoara has three historical areas: Iosefin, Fabric and Citadel. Other important places are Unirii Square and Victoriei Square.

Maramureş Wooden Churches
The Maramureș wooden churches are remarkable examples of well-preserved religious architecture that emerged from the Orthodox traditions and Gothic style influences.

Because they are an exceptional expression of the cultural heritage of this mountainous area of northern Romania eight of these churches are included in UNESCO World Heritage List since 1999.
The Merry Cemetery
It is famous for its colorful tombstones with native paintings describing, in an original and poetic manner, the persons that are buried there as well as scenes from their lives. The Merry Cemetery became an open-air museum and a national tourist attraction.

The cemetery's origins are linked with the name of Stan Ioan Pătraş, a local artist who sculpted the first tombstone crosses. In 1935, Pătraș carved the first epitaph and, as of the 1960s, more than 800 of such oak wood crosses came into sight.
Moldavian Monasteries
Putna
Important cultural and artistic center, not only religious, including a museum rich in works of monks.
Moldovița
It is one of the most important and oldest monastic settlements. The church is also one painted on the outside. Byzantine and Gothic architectural styles were combined here to create one of the most beautiful monasteries of Moldavia and a symbol of the Orthodox religious culture.
Sucevița
Monastery complex is based on a legend that says that, for the redemption of sins, a woman brought over 30 years, building stone chariot pulled by buffalos. Decorated with murals inside and outside, the monastery is one of the most beautiful representations of both Byzantine and Gothic style.
Agapia
The most important objective worth having both religious and artistic value are the frescoes painted by Nicolae Grigorescu.
Văratec
It is the largest monastery of nuns in Romania. In the monastery village there is a house where Mihai Eminescu came during summer, renting it from a nun.
Voroneț
One of the best known and most visited of Moldavian monasteries, being appreciated for its uniqueness, color on so-called " Voroneţ blue". It was called the Sistine Chapel of the East, because, apart from the famous colored monastery and can boast an impressive number of paintings.
Dragomirna
Nicolae Iorga spoke Dragomirna matchless beauty, its greatness and the overall impression it makes on viewers. Dragomirna ensemble is built on the border of two centuries and stands at two stages of the Moldavian style.
Secu
It integrates influences shaped his Wallachian and Moldavian architecture is representative of the late XVI century and the beginning of the XVII century.
Danube Delta
The Danube Delta is the second largest river delta in Europe, after Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent. It has one of the richest ecosystems, and also an inhabited area, where you can find interesting customs.

Bucharest
Romanian Atheneum
This is Bucharest's most prestigious concert hall and one of the most beautiful buildings in the city. It was built in 1888 in neo-classical style after a design by the French architect Albert Galleron.
National Art Museum (former Royal Palace)
The imposing building which used to be the Royal Palace is located in the Revolution Square (Piata Revolutiei), in the northwestern corner. It was first built around 1815 by prince Dinicu Golescu and it underwent changes over several decades. The building was remodeled in 1882-1885 after plans by the French architect Paul Gottereau only to be rebuilt in 1930-1938 after being damaged in a fire in 1926.
Palace of Parliament
The Palace of Parliament is a multi-purpose building containing both chambers of the Romanian Parliament. According to the World Records Academy, the Palace is the world's largest civilian building with an administrative function, most expensive administrative building and heaviest building.

Cismigiu Gardens
It is Bucharest's oldest park and a great place to stroll and enjoy the peace that one can feel finding such a place in the middle of a hectic city. Among the lawns and trees and the winding paths you'll find a lake with rowboat rentals, a beer garden, a playground for children, a chess area where old people play tournaments and plenty of park benches for relaxing and people watching. Cismigiu was first designed and laid out in 1830 by the German landscape architect Carl Meyer, on the commision of Prince Gheorghe Bibescu, but it wasn't completed until 1860.
The Triumphal Arch
Modelled on the triumphal arch in Paris, the structure was erected in 1935-1936 to commemorate the creation of Greater Romania which took place in 1918. Portraits of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie decorate one face, while the names of battles fought by Romanians during the First World War can be seen on the other face. The portraits of the king and queen were destroyed during the communist rule but they were restored in 1992.
National Theater
It was built in 1973 after plans by a group of Romanian architects. The old building of the National Theater was destroyed during the World War II. Originally the building had a different facade, modeled after the architecture of Moldova's monasteries but in 1984 it was remodeled and got its present massive shape. The theatre has 4 performance halls.
Herăstrău Park
The park has an area of about 1.1 km², of which 0.7 km² is the lake. Initially, the area was full of marshes, but these were drained between 1930 and 1935, and the park was opened in 1936. The park is divided into two zones: a rustic or natural zone (the Village Museum), which is left more or less undisturbed, and a public/'active' domain with open areas for recreation activities. Small boats are allowed on the lake.
Transfăgărășan
It is one of the most spectacular road in the world, crossing Făgăraș Mountains, with a lenght of 151 kilometers and a maximum height of 2042 meters. During its route you can admire sights like: Bâlea Lake and Bâlea Waterfall, Capra Lake or Vidraru Dam.
Transalpina
It is the highest road in Romania and in the whole Carpathian Mountains, with a maximum height of 2145 meters. It was build for the first time by the Romans almost 2000 years ago during a war with Dacians.
Corvin Castle
Corvin Castle, also known as Corvins' Castle, Hunyad Castle or Hunedoara Castle is a Gothic-Renaissance castle in Hunedoara, in the region of Transylvania, Romania.
Alba Iulia Fortress
The bulwark fortress of Alba Iulia has been set up between 1714 and 1738 and it is considered to be the most representative of Vauban type in Romania. The fortress was designed by the Italian architect Giovanni Morando Visconti. Between the 18th and 19th centuries the fortress has served as the military center of Transylvania and also as general armament dump.
Cluj-Napoca - General Information
Location: Central Romania (County: Cluj)
Size: 16.2 sq. miles (42 sq. km)
Elevation: 1.181 ft. (360 meters)
Population: 340,000
First documented: 1177 AD (Clus)

CLUJ NAPOCA - City Highlights
This western city in the region of Transylvania traces its origins back to the Dacian settlement of Napuca in the 2-nd century A.D. After the Roman take-over of Dacia, it was renamed Napoca and in 124 A.D., received the rank of "municipium". The city quickly advanced socially and economically and during Marcus Aurelius' reign Napoca received the title "colonia", the highest possible urban status in the Roman Empire.

The name Cluj comes from Castrum Clus, first used in the 12-th century as the name of the citadel surrounding the city. Clus means "closed" in Latin and refers to the hills that surround the city.

St. Michael's Church
This church is one of the most beautiful gothic monuments in Transylvania. St. Michael's Church was erected between 1350 and 1487 on the site of the former St. Jacob's Chapel.
Tailors' Bastion
Dating from 1550, Tailors' Bastion is the only such structure still standing from the medieval fortified city.
Fortress Hill
For the best views of the city and the surrounding landscape, climb some 200 feet up Fortress Hill. The name refers to an Austrian fortress built here in the 18-th century to ensure control, rather than defense, of the city.
Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden
Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden, one of the largest in southeastern Europe, is home to some 10,000 plant species. Within the grounds, you can visit a museum; several greenhouses with desert and tropical plants, including huge Amazonian water lilies; a Japanese garden with a brook and a Japanese-style house, and the Roman Garden with archeological relics from the Roman colony of Napoca.
Central Park
Hire a boat to row on the small lake or just enjoy a stroll in this 180-year old park.


Romulus Vuia Ethnographic Park
Founded in 1929, the park exhibits some 90 Romanian, Saxon and Szekler traditional houses, sawmills, wells, potter's workshops, sheepfolds and outbuildings for grinding gold-bearing ores, sheep rearing, blacksmithing and tanning hides.
The Orthodox Metropolitan Cathedral
It is one of the most important religious buildings from Cluj-Napoca municipality.
The “Lucian Blaga” National Theatre
and Romanian Opera
The two cultural institutions were founded in 18th September 1919, as an expression of spiritual rebirth after the Great Union in 1918. The building which houses the “Lucian Blaga” National Theatre an the Romanian Opera were built between 1904 and 1906.The two cultural institutions were founded in 18th September 1919, as an expression of spiritual rebirth after the Great Union in 1918. The building which houses the “Lucian Blaga” National Theatre an the Romanian Opera were built between 1904 and 1906.
Cluj Arena
Cluj Arena is the symbol stadium of Cluj Napoca, built in 2011 in the same place like the old ION MOINA Stadium. Being built at highest standards, the new Arena is rated as an UEFA ELITE Stadium.
St. Michael's Church
It is a symbolic place in town- one of the top three monuments of the Transylvanian Gothic (the second largest church after the Black Church of Brașov).
The Roman-Catholic Church "St.Mary"
Also known as Calvaria Church, was built in the small village of Mănăştur near Cluj-Napoca (today a district of Cluj-Napoca). A small Benedictine abbey surrounded by defensive walls, Calvaria Church was built starting in the 9th-10th centuries.
Continental Hotel
It was built at the end of the 19th century, on the site of the old Nemzeti (National) Hotel. An eclectic creation of Lajos Pákei, the city’s architect in the early 20th century, the building housed a famous restaurant, as well as a coffee shop visited by artists, journalist and the bohemians of Cluj.
Mathias Rex Equestrian Statue (Unirii Square)
It is the work of the sculptor Ioan Fadrusz and architect Pakei Lajos and won the Great Prize at the Paris World Exhibition in 1900. It was unveiled in 1902 in today's Unirii Square.
The Central Cemetery ( Házsongárd )
It holds the vaults of some old princely and aristocratic families (Teleki, Bethlen, Kendeffy, Bánffy, Apor, etc.), as well as the grave of John Paget and that of Sámuel Brassai, reminiscent of the old days of Transylvania, which confer it a status of genuine open-air museum, and a spot of dense romantic atmosphere.
Unirii Square
It formed the core of the medieval city, clustered around the Church of St. Michael. The medieval city walls delimit the historic city center.
The Pharmacy History Collection
The museum opened in 1954 .This collection containing 1,800 pieces was donated to the museum and it was enriched over time through other several valuable donations that describe the pharmaceutical activity in Transylvania from the 16th century to the 20th.
The house of Mathias Corvin
In this house on 23 February 1440, was born Matia Corvin, the king of Hungary between the years 1458-1490. Today is considered one of the greatest Hungarian kings.
Near Cluj
attractions

TURDA SALT MINE
"THE COOLEST UNDERGROUND PLACE IN THE WORLD"
Turda Salt Mine is also on the 22nd place of the unbelievable travel destinations in the world (-source BUSINESS INSIDER ).

Bánffy Castle
It is an architectonic Baroque monument situated in Bonţida, a village in the vicinity of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The castle was desecrated during World War II by German troops and neglected by the communist regime in Romania. The Castle of Bonțida is now being restored as a cultural center.
Turda Gorge
It contains one of the richest and most scenic karst landscapes in Romania. More than 1000 plant and animal species (some of them rare or endangered, like the wild garlic or some species of eagle) live here.
Romania’s famous
“Vama Veche”

It is a village in Constanţa County, Romania, on the Black Sea coast, near the border with Bulgaria.
Biertan fortified church
Together with the surrounding village ,the church forms part of the villages with fortified churches in Transylvania UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Peleș Castle
Peles Castle is considered by many one of the most beautiful castles in all Europe. It was the final resting place for several Romanian monarchs including King Carol I, who died here in 1914.
Bran Castle - Dracula Castle
Many legends are connected with Bran Castle. It is said the castle belonged to Count Dracula (Vlad Tepes), but nobody has any proof. Vlad Tepes lived only for a short time in the castle and only as a guest. What is really true is that Bran Castle conjures up the perfect Gothic fairy-tale image of a Transylvanian castle and as a result draws crowds of tourists from far and wide.
Rock sculpture of Decebalus
The rock sculpture of Decebalus is a 40-m high carving to the ancient Dacian king. It is the tallest rock sculpture in Europe. It is located on the Danube's rocky bank, near the city of Orşova, Romania.
Maramureș
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