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Music and the Brain

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Anson Wong

on 11 March 2014

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Transcript of Music and the Brain

Music and the Brain
Introduction To Music and the Brain
How Musical Training Affects the Brain
Psychological Theories:
Constructivism

"Music makes you smarter"
Dyslexia
Music as an Enrichment Tool
Jean Piaget
-Sensorimotor: learning senses and motor interaction

-Preoperational: language, symbols, imagined objects

-Concrete operational: logic, cause and effect
can understand timbre, tempo, duration, pitch, harmony

-Formal operational: abstract thought, problem solving
can understand musical notation
Stages of Development
Brains of Musicians
-MRIs used to examine differences between brains of musicians vs. non-musicians

-sensory motor and auditory perception regions of brain are more developed in musicians

-development of these areas due to repetitive training to reinforce synaptic connections

-the earlier the start of musical experience and the more training, the more developed those regions of the brain
-sensorimotor stage of development for strengthening sensory motor skills provided by musical training

-corpus callosum larger in musicians especially if started before age 7

-perfect pitch only known to occur if musician started before age 7

-music shapes the brain mostly during critical stages of development
cortical homunculus
: a representation of the anatomical divisions; a sensory map that represents each part of the body in proportion to the number of sensory neural connections
the amount of
white matter
connecting the left and right brains was found to be larger in musicians
the anatomy of the
central sulcus
close to the primary motor area is predictive of the kind of instrument played by a given musician
mozart
effect ...
beneficial
yes
Beneficial because...
→ Independence ! (Bruner)
→ Multiple Intelligences !
(Gardner)

Music
→ creativity and maturity to make it beautiful,
→ counting beats and measures
→ subdividing beats, like fractions
→ multitasking betweenw reading, playing and looking at the conductor
→ music is a process that simulates different parts of the brain at the same time”

Beneficial for younger children because it helps with

→ attention span
→ fine motor skills
→ memorization skills
Studies show ...
Playing an instrument boosts your IQ
Based off SAT Scores
Music Performance:
51 points – higher on verbal section
39 points – higher on math section

Music Appreciation:
61 points – higher on verbal section
42 points – higher on math section
INTERESTING FACT

Some company's use
music for training !
Music
English
Mathematics
Biology
Chemistry
The Similarities
Broca

Wernicke
MUSIC
ENGLISH
/
LANGUAGES
- is the most commonly diagnosed of a large number of learning disabilities → 4 to 5 children with LD's have dyslexia
- Effects include difficulty with phonetic awareness, phonetic decoding, etc ... anything to do with a reading function
Subtypes of Dyslexia
→ aurally = phonological
→ writing = dysgraphia
→ motor development = dyspraxia
ALEXIA VS. DYSLEXIA
Examples of Dyslexia
- reversible letters
- reverse symbols
- reverse syllables
Relationship between Dyslexia & Music
Developmental Dyslexia
→ auditory and training
→ the practice of singing
→ reading music notation
Inclusive Teaching Strategies for Elementary-Age Children with Developmental Dyslexia
PLACEMENT
WRITTEN MATERIALS
EXAMPLE
Musicians become more sensitive to musical sounds
Musical training can shape the
highfalutin circuitry
of the cerebral cortex which affects areas in the “reptile brain” which affects how we hear
Pathways that connect the cortex and feed down to the brain stem influence how we hear different frequencies
Practical uses and applications of all this brainy business!
WHO
Jonathan Bolduc
University of Ottawa
Isabelle Montesinos-Gelet
University of Montreal
13 French Canadian kindergartners (average age: 5 years, 6 months)
WHAT
evaluated the perceptive musical abilities of the participants
the correlation between
1) Phonological awareness
2) Melodic perception
3) Rhythmic perception abilities
perceptive musical
abilities with:
Gordon's (1979)
Primary Measures of Music Audiation Test
phonological awareness
abilities with:
Armand and Montésinos-Gelet's (2001)
Phonological Awareness Test
.
HOW
RESULTS?
significant correlation between scores obtained in the
perceptive melodic tasks
(Gordon, 1979) and the
syllables and rhymes identification tasks
(Armand & Montésinos-Gelet, 2001)

melodic perceptive abilities
were correlated with
syllabic
and
rhythmic identification
tasks
SO WHAT?
music education
may contribute to the development of phonological memory
musical activities help children focus on elements that are
different
but useful for
the emergence and development of linguistic skills:
auditory perception
phonological memory
metacognitive knowledge
more information can be found at:
http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v10n1/bolduc.html#5
...in the classroom?
creates a short nursery rhyme each week
involves: repeating rhymes, first syllable alliteration, and two invented words
rhyme is accompanied by rhythmic and melodic material

involves mixture of kinesthetic engagement
“They become more open to what music is. Their listening skills improve, they are pushed to notice words more. They say, ‘That’s not a real word, it’s an invented word.’ All the things they do with M. Jonathan.”
OUR TURN!
Come, Mister tally man, tally me banana
Daylight come and me wan' go home
Come, Mister tally man, tally me banana
Daylight come and me wan' go home

Day-o
,
Day-o

me say day-o
,
me say day-o
Daylight come and me wan' go home
HARRY BELAFONTE
Pedagogical Purpose
locate the sound in space and then to distinguish the timbre of the two different instruments
to listen to the colour of the sound and to notice elements that are different in a specific sequence.
use of vocables to teach different sounds
WHERE DOES AUDITORY PROCESSING OCCUR?
Left brain hemisphere and areas associated with sound detection
The Ear
Musical Perception: Auditory Processing
Audition is a hierarchical process
Pitch
Rhythm
neurons lateral to auditory cortex sensitive to complex tones
supported by (fMRI) studies
hierarchical
Rhythm & pitch separation?
May be seperate mechanisms in the brain
Motor regions of brain contribute
Musicians vs Non-musicians & music
Playing Music
primary auditory cortex
planum temporale
: areas next to the auditory cortex that processes auditory information
the planum temporale is asymmetrical the left planum tends to be larger, even more so for musicians
grey matter
density in a small area of the right planum temporale related to pitch discrimination, result of repetitive rehearsal
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