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The importance of Carbon as a new material in technology

An investigation into the applications and uses of Carbon focusing on the newest developments with the material

Danielle Southall

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of The importance of Carbon as a new material in technology

Carbon fibre
importance of
Carbon as a new
material in

Simple Carbon Compounds
Synthesising graphite and its properties
Uses of graphite
Diamond: the most valuable rock on Earth
How diamond is utilised
Allotrope of carbon arranged in planes of hexagonal lattices
Can be formed in rocks which are then mined for the graphite
Artificially made by heating amorphous carbon
A block of graphite
The structure of graphite
Pencil "lead"
Crucibles for molten metal due to high melting point
Lubricating substance
The conducting component in batteries
For making electrodes (synthetic graphite only)
Neutron moderation
Steel making
Graphite from a neutron moderator
Graphite pencil
Has been known about for up to 6000 years
Formed in the mantle of the Earth
Unlike graphite it doesn't conduct electricity due to no free electrons
Octahedral lattice structure
A flawless diamond
Structure of diamond
Industrial diamonds
Mostly widely known to be used in jewellery
Is used to edge cutting tools due to its hardness
It can be used as an optical component as it disperses light well
Diamond jewellery
Diamond edged circular
saw blades
Nano Molecules
Synthesis and discovery of Buckminsterfullerene
Applications of fullerenes and developments
Synthesis and properties of Carbon Nanotubes
Uses of Carbon Nanotubes
Synthesis of Graphene
Applications of Graphene
Introduction to carbon
Fundamental element
Has 6 protons, 6 neutrons and 6 electrons
Used in over 10 million different compounds
The building block of life
Very electrically conductive
Most simplest form is amorphous carbon, e.g. coal or soot
Synthesised by polymerising carbon chains based on plastics
To make carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer the carbon fibres are spun and woven then reinforced with resin
Robert Kubica crash Cananda 2007
Gerhard Berger crash Italy 1989
My presentation is about the versatility of carbon and how it can be used as a material in its own right. I chose this topic because it relates to motor sport, something I have a deep interest in.
To be used for Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II wing tips and up to 100 other components
Important in the development of prosthetic limbs
Newest developments
High strength to weight ratio makes it desirable for high performance purposes
Very strong carbon compounds where carbon is bonded to a more electronegative element
Discovered in 1985 by Richard Smalley, Harold Kroto, James Heath, Robert Curl and Sean O'Brien at Rice University.
Occurs naturally but mostly synthesised by laser ablation or arc discharge
Structure very similar to a football
In healthcare, e.g. stopping allergic reactions combating motor deterioration and inhibiting the HIV virus. (Although these are still being tested)
Storing hydrogen to be used as fuel
They are similar to Buckminsterfullerene as they are also classed as fullerenes
Synthesised in the same way as fullerenes through laser ablation and arc discharge
Important as it has 30 times the tensile strength of steel
Speeding up computer chips as they can carry electrical signals
Energy storage mainly in solar cells
Fighting cancer by targeting individual cells
Can be used to reinforce carbon fibre based materials
Graphene is the basis of most carbon allotropes as it is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb pattern
Formed by literally peeling layers of carbon of a graphite block
First made at the University of Manchester using adhesive tape and repeatedly separating the layers until there was a layer of carbon atoms only 1 atom thick
Because graphene is only 1 atom thick this means there are free electrons to carry electrical charge
Graphene can be a superconductor, a semiconductor or a superinsulator at different voltages
Theoretically graphene could eventually be used as a nano-scale computer processor
Silicon Carbide (SiC) occurs naturally in moissanite - can be made by dissolving carbon in liquid silicon.
Used mainly for brake discs in high performance cars "carbon-ceramic brakes."
Also used to synthesise graphene by heating to high temperature
Tungsten Carbide (WC) is made by heating tungsten and carbon.
Sometimes used as ammunition where depleted uranium is unavailable
Most common use is as a cutting tool material
Thank you for listening.

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