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Woman's Economic, Social, & Political Lives in Western Europe Since the 16th Century
Transcript of Woman's Economic, Social, & Political Lives in Western Europe Since the 16th Century
• He also ignored other aspects of enlightenment, the Napoleonic Code limited women’s rights and made the husband or father the sole controller of a family’s finances for example under the code women's paychecks would go directly to her husband.
•Women owed complete obedience to their husbands, conversely husbands were required to protect their wives.
•Women could not own property in a marriage, any property she had prior to the marriage would be transferred to her husband.
•Women could not demand for a divorce unless her husband had moved his concubine into their house, men could request for divorce under any circumstances.
• All these measures were enacted to create stability within the domestic unit. Napoleonic Code The Industrial Revolution Unit Three Women's Economic, Political, & Social Lives: The Western World Since the 16th Century -Women began working at a much lower rate then men
-Took up work in harsh occupations (i.e coal mines) where demand was high
-Husbands began to depend on their wives income
- Women were often beaten by drunken husbands
-Domestic life suffered since women had to leave their homes for work Early modern Europeans took shelter in communities
Families were the most important, as they were units of economic production, education, healthcare, social welfare, small scale governance, and armed defense
Property was a family's bedrock; inheritance dictated the males' future roles within society
Some women had goods of their own, often passed down the female line
In general, the whole regime was male
While sons inherited, their sisters had little more than dowry, handed by their fathers to their grooms
By law, this belonged to the wife but was invested and enjoyed by the husband
Dowry = Female life insurance (reverted on the husband's death) Unfaithful husbands got off free and clear whereas if adultery was performed by the woman, she forfeited her title
This arrangement chained women to their husbands
Divorce was barely possible T.S. Countless Divisions Expressed Hierarchy: Youth deferred to age
Servants to masters
Foot soldiers to their officers
The disenfranchised to citizens
The citizens to the officials of town or guild
And women to men •Believed three major facets of women’s lives were hindering them, society, education and marriage. •Mill being a proponent of Jeremy Bentham defended women’s rights on utilitarian grounds, obviously stating that that current status of women was not the greatest good for the greatest number. •Stated that the belief that women were naturally worse at some thing then was untrue since society has never let them try. B.C 1. How has women’s inequality throughout European history been established? How is it that this inequality was maintained? B.C Mary Wollstonecraft Catherine the Great The Marquis du Chatelet - One of the first female "intellectuals" 2. The foundations of women's equality were built during the enlightenment era in Europe, but even today, many countries around the world have not fully embraced the 'enlightened' ideals of the west. Considering this, do you think that these countries are excusable for their backwards approach to women equality? Keep in mind, the equality of women that we are accustomed to, is hundreds of years in the making. Unit Two - She married into wealth, allowing her to
study the arts, science and mathematics
-She heavily influenced the dramatic
arts in France
-After translating "An Enquirey into the Origin
of Moral Time" by Bernard Mandeville, she
wondered why women were responsible
for so few pieces of art,
literature or developments in science -1706-1749. -1759-1797. -1762-1796
-She became the Empress of Russia after
the death of her husband Peter the Great.
-She is often considered an 'enlightened
- Her actions are responsible for
elevating Russia to being a major power
- Greatly increased the size of Russia
- Revolutionized health care in Russia and made it available
- She appointed high ranking positions to women.
- Established a free public school system
- She greatly increased the number of public servants, orphanages and prisons. - She was an author, philosopher
and advocate of women's rights. - She wrote novels and treatises
but is most well known for her
"A Vindication of Women's Rights" - She argued that women WERE equal to men,
they just didn't appear it as they were often uneducated.
She also suggested that this lack of education was a result
of women not being aware of the opportunities they may
have, as they conform to their expectations. Women in the Enlightenment Although women still remained imprisoned by constraints of a male-dominated society, the rise of enlightened thought made it possible for the rights of women to advance
With the abundance of books being produced after the invention of the printing press and Denis Diderot's creation of the first encyclopedia, information was much easier for the lower classes to access. This resulted in an increase in women's literacy in the time period, allowing them to participate in the exploitation of reason
A small minority of women concerned with their own education and interested in promoting enlightened philosophies would attend salons to participate in intellectual conversation. Although women were allowed in the salons, they didn't receive the same level of respect as men 15th Century Women died giving birth:
Blood loss, lack of sanitation
Lots of children = More Free Labor
The church also wanted women to have lots of children:
More children = More Christians
Marry for economic and political reasons, not love
Must marry same class
Love matches were for the poor T.S. M.S T.S. Late 1800's
-Government was made up from mostly conservative aristocrats
-Protestant and Catholic Church were very influential
-Very difficult for women to engage in politics or make any sort
of political movement
-Women's rights were not achieved till the early 1900's France -Great divide in politics; Liberals to the far left, Conservatives to the far right.
-Ideologies of a true equality still lingered from the French Revolution
-Caused women to side with the liberals Succession: Women's Role Isabella of Castile Ferdinand of Aragon + Joanna of Castile Catherine of Aragon England Henry VII Arthur + Henry VIII + " " Death at 17 Geopolitics: Marry for power! + Phillip I -Feminists were much more successful
-Suffrage societies ensured little resistance to the feminists
-1857 divorce courts were built
-1882 married women received the same property rights as single women
-Women were struggling to get the vote and as a result began campaigning using aggressive measures Germany Mary I Charles V aka Carlos I + Isabella of Portugal Can't! Phillip II Marries 2nd Cousin T.S. -The Catholic church gave women a strong resistance to any political stand
-Women had been petitioning for many reforms in the law, such as with the marriage law in 1880
-French women did not get the vote till 1945 M.S M.S M.S B.C The majority of male voters frowned upon the idea of women participating in revolutionary politics
A number of radical women attempted to make speeches and start women’s club during the French Revolution
The most famous is Théroigne de Méricourt, who was adivdly interested in debating at the Estates General. When she died from mental illness in an insane asylum, some of her male enemies claimed it to be that her madness and death were a result of her bizarre, unfeminine involvement in politics
All of the women’s clubs that had been started during the French Revolution, created so that women to be able to discuss politics amongst themselves, were shut down in 1793, and all leading women were executed Women in the French Revolution -"If I were King... I would redress an abuse which cuts back, as it where, one half of human kind. I would have women Participate in all human rights, especially those of the mind With the growth of reason also came the growth of speculation.
Women began to question their inferior role in society
The artistic and intellectual works of even the most influential female figures were, for the most part, denied publicity
Jean Jacques Rousseau, an enlightened philosopher and a key figure in the Enlightenment argued that it was natural for women to obey men and stated that "Women do wrong to complain of the inequality of man-made laws" A.L. A.L. A.L. 3. Do you support the idea of geopolitics? If so, in what ways do you
believe geopolitics would benefit today's society? LH LH Unit Two: The Age of Enlightenment Queen Mary I Reigned 8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587 - Took throne in 1555, from Lady Jane Grey who was beheaded
- Restored Catholicism in England
- Married her cousin Philip King of Spain
- After 4 years of Catholic restoration she died childless,
the crown was passed to Elizabeth I Queen Elizabeth I Reigned 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603 - The daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn,
seen as illegitimate by Catholics
- Never married, known as the "Virgin Queen"
- Restored Anglicanism as the religion of
- Had her cousin Mary Queen of Scots executed
for plotting her overthrow Mary Queen of Scots Reigned 14 December 1542 – 24 July 1567 - Only surviving child from James V of Scotland
- Was considered the legitimate sovereign of England
- Was a threat to Queen Elizabeth's rule, forced
to hide in Scottish countryside
- Was executed by the orders of Queen Elizabeth for
treason on December 8 1542